Biography and Education
Charles W. Flowers Jr., MD, received his undergraduate degree in Chemistry from Stanford University in 1985 and his medical degree from Cornell University Medical College in 1989. During his time as a medical student he was honored as a national medical fellowship scholar. Following his ophthalmology residency training at the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine in Los Angeles, California, he completed a cornea and refractive surgery fellowship in the USC Department of Ophthalmology where he was the recipient of the Award of Excellence in Resident Training. Dr. Flowers has been repeatedly recognized as one of the nation’s top eye surgeons by the Consumer’s Research Council for his expertise in cornea and refractive surgery.
Dr. Flowers’ research focuses on identifying best practices for deploying teleophthalmology to screen for diabetic retinopathy in urban medically underserved communities. In addition, he conducts investigations on the use of Anterior Segment OCT as a tool for refractive surgery screening and Posterior Segment OCT of the optic nerve as a tool for assessing post concussion syndrome. In addition, Dr. Flowers is involved in identifying best practices for sports visual enhancement.
- BS, Chemistry, Standford University, 1985
- MD, Cornell University Medical College, 1989
- Charles R. Drew University of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA: General Surgery, 1989-1990
- Charles R. Drew University of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA , 1990-1993
- Charles R. Drew University of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA , Chief Resident, 1992-1993
- University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA: Cornea and Refractive Surgery and External Disease
Professional society memberships
- American Academy of Ophthalmology
- American Society for Cataract and Refractive Surgery
- Fellow American College of Surgeons
- National Medical Fellowships Scholar, recipient of Cornell University Medical College Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Merit Award, 1989
- Intern of the Year Award, Department of Surgery, King-Drew Medical Center, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, 1989-90
- Joint Council of Interns and Residents, The County of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA Service-Leadership Award, 1991-92
- Outstanding Scientific Poster Presentation Award, National Medical Association, 1992
- National Eye Institute Travel Fellowship, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 1994
- Award of Excellence in Resident Training, Department of Ophthalmology, USC School of Medicine, 1995
- 1998 Innovator’s Award, Health Data Management Magazine, 1998
- Health Data Management Magazine Innovator’s Award, 1998
- Computer-World Smithsonian Laureate, Smithsonian Institution Permanent Research Collection, 1998
- Smithsonian Institution’s Permanent Research Collection Computer World Smithsonian Laureate, 1998
- Teleconferencing Excellence Award, International Teleconferencing Association, 1999
- JCIR/CIR HONOREE, 1999
- “Proclamation” From Los Angeles County Supervisor Burke’s Office, 1999
- Teleconferencing Excellence Award, 1999
- Masters In Medicine Honoree, June, 1999
- Productivity & Quality Award Sara Stivelman Memorial Award, November,1999
- Tech Expo 2000 – Best Practices Showcase Award Certificate of Excellence, April 2000
- RCMI Research Award of Excellence, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine, 2000
- HUD – Best Practices Award Los Angeles Local Winner, June 2000
- Safety Net Health System Innovation Honorable Mention In Recognition of Telemedicine Specialty Care, 2000
- HUD – Best Practices Award National Winner, 2000
- America’s Top Ophthalmologists, Consumers’ Research Council of America, 2002
- Winston Crouch Award For Innovation in Government, 2002
- San Diego’s Top Doctors, San Diego Magazine, 2004-2005
- VSP People First Award Certificate of Recognition, 2006
- People’s Choice Most Compassionate Doctor Award, 2010
- Consumers’ Research Council, 2010
- Flowers CW, Jr., McDonnell PJ, McLeod SD. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Ophthalmology clinics of North America. 2001;14(2):275-83. Epub 2001/06/19. PubMed PMID: 11406423.
- Robinson C, Flowers CW, Alperson BL, Norris KC. Internet access and use among disadvantaged inner-city patients. Jama. 1999;281(11):988-9. Epub 1999/03/23. PubMed PMID: 10086432.
- Flowers CW, Jr. Caring for the inner city: telemedicine’s newest niche. Health management technology. 1999;20(9):12-4. Epub 2000/01/06. PubMed PMID: 10622882.
- Baker RS, Wilson RM, Flowers CW, Jr., Lee DA, Wheeler NC. A population-based survey of hospitalized work-related ocular injury: diagnoses, cause of injury, resource utilization, and hospitalization outcome. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 1999;6(3):159-69. Epub 1999/09/17. PubMed PMID: 10487971.
- Schallhorn SC, Reid JL, Kaupp SE, Blanton CL, Zoback L, Goforth H, Jr., et al. Topographic detection of photorefractive keratectomy. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(3):507-16. Epub 1998/03/21. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(98)93035-4. PubMed PMID: 9499783.
- Baker RS, Watkins NL, Wilson MR, Bazargan M, Flowers CW, Jr. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with diabetes presenting to an urban public hospital ophthalmology clinic. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(8):1373-9. Epub 1998/08/26. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(98)98015-0. PubMed PMID: 9709745.
- Flowers CW, Jr., Baker RS, Khanna S, Ali B, March GA, Scott C, et al. Teleophthalmology: rationale, current issues, future directions. Telemedicine journal : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association. 1997;3(1):43-52. Epub 1997/04/01. PubMed PMID: 10166444.
- McLeod SD, Kolahdouz-Isfahani A, Rostamian K, Flowers CW, Lee PP, McDonnell PJ. The role of smears, cultures, and antibiotic sensitivity testing in the management of suspected infectious keratitis. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(1):23-8. Epub 1996/01/01. PubMed PMID: 8628555.
- McLeod SD, Chang KY, Flowers CW, Irvine JA, McDonnell PJ, Smith RE. Iris-sutured posterior chamber lens dislocation late after penetrating keratoplasty. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1996;114(8):1032-3. Epub 1996/08/01. PubMed PMID: 8694723.
- Flowers CW, Jr., Reynolds D, Irvine JA, Heuer DK. Pupillary block, angle-closure glaucoma produced by an anterior chamber air bubble in a nanophthalmic eye. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1996;114(9):1145-6. Epub 1996/09/01. PubMed PMID: 8790108.
- Flowers CW, McLeod SD, McDonnell PJ, Irvine JA, Smith RE. Evaluation of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in the triple procedure. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. 1996;22(1):116-22. Epub 1996/01/01. PubMed PMID: 8656348.
- Flowers CW, Jr., Baker RS. Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva. Jama. 1996;275(20):1545. Epub 1996/05/22. PubMed PMID: 8622240.
- Casey R, Flowers CW, Jr., Jones DD, Scott L. Anterior nodular scleritis secondary to syphilis. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1996;114(8):1015-6. Epub 1996/08/01. PubMed PMID: 8694709.
- Baker RS, Wilson MR, Flowers CW, Jr., Lee DA, Wheeler NC. Demographic factors in a population-based survey of hospitalized, work-related, ocular injury. American journal of ophthalmology. 1996;122(2):213-9. Epub 1996/08/01. PubMed PMID: 8694089.
- Baker RS, Flowers CW, Jr., Singh P, Smith A, Casey R. Corneoscleral laceration caused by air-bag trauma. American journal of ophthalmology. 1996;121(6):709-11. Epub 1996/06/01. PubMed PMID: 8644816.
- Baker RS, Flowers CW, Jr., Casey R, Fong DS, Wilson MR. Efficacy of ofloxacin vs cefazolin and tobramycin in the therapy for bacterial keratitis. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1996;114(5):632-3. Epub 1996/05/01. PubMed PMID: 8619784.
- Smith RE, Flowers CW, Jr. Chronic blepharitis: a review. The CLAO journal : official publication of the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc. 1995;21(3):200-7. Epub 1995/07/01. PubMed PMID: 7586480.
- McLeod SD, LaBree LD, Tayyanipour R, Flowers CW, Lee PP, McDonnell PJ. The importance of initial management in the treatment of severe infectious corneal ulcers. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(12):1943-8. Epub 1995/12/01. PubMed PMID: 9098300.
- McLeod SD, Flowers CW, Lopez PF, Marx J, McDonnell PJ. Endophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis after radial keratotomy. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(12):1902-7. Epub 1995/12/01. PubMed PMID: 9098294.
- Flowers CW, Chanq KY, McLeod SD, Irvine JA, McDonnell PJ, Rao N, et al. Changing indications for penetrating keratoplasty, 1989-1993. Cornea. 1995;14(6):583-8. Epub 1995/11/01. PubMed PMID: 8575177.
- Flowers CW, Jr., McDonnell PJ. Mechanical methods in refractive corneal surgery. Current opinion in ophthalmology. 1994;5(4):81-9. Epub 1994/07/07. PubMed PMID: 10172082.
- Axe FU, Flowers C, Loew GH, Waleh A. Theoretical studies of high-, intermediate-, and low-spin model heme complexes. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1989;111(19):7333-9. doi: 10.1021/ja00201a009.