DoctorsMark S. Borchert, MD

Mark S. Borchert, MD

Title: Associate Professor of Clinical Ophthalmology and Neurology and Director of the Eye Birth Defects Institute and Eye Technology Institute in The Vision Center at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA)

Department: Ophthalmology

Clinical Specialty: Neuro-Ophthalmology and Pediatric Ophthalmology

Treatment Expertise: Optic Nerve Hypoplasia and Pediatric Neuro-Ophthalmology

Certification: American Board of Ophthalmology

Language: English

Location: Children’s Hospital Los Angeles

Biography and Education

Biography

Mark S. Borchert, MD earned a medical degree from Baylor College of Medicine. He completed his residency in the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, and a fellowship in neuro-ophthalmology at the Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Harvard University. Dr. Borchert is the Director of Eye Birth Defects, leading the world’s largest study into optic nerve hypoplasia. Dr. Borchert, who has been listed in “Best Doctors in America,” also has received honors from the Pan American Association of Ophthalmology, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and Society of Heed Fellows, as well as several teaching awards from the Keck School of Medicine. His research on the development of the retina and optic nerve in rats was part of an experiment on the NASA space shuttle.

Research Interests:

Investigates the development of the optic nerve and its retinotopic connections in the tectum (part of the midbrain) and thalamus (part of the forebrain). He is interested in the role that inaccurate or inadequate development of these connections plays in the pathogenesis of optic nerve hypoplasia, the leading cause of blindness in infants in the United states and Europe. Dr. Borchert’s research focus also includes developing diagnostic tools using spectroscopic methods in the measurement of glucose levels in the eye.

Education

  • MD, Baylor College of Medicine, 1983

Internship

  • Boston City Hospital: Internal Medicine, 1983 – 1984

Residency

  • USC Department of Surgery: Ophthalmology, 1984 – 1987

Fellowship

  • Neuro-ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary: Boston, 1987 – 1988

Accomplishments

Professional society memberships

  • Los Angeles Society of Ophthalmology
  • Los Angeles County Medical Association
  • Los Angeles Society of Neurological Sciences
  • California Academy of Ophthalmology
  • California Medical Association
  • Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
  • American Academy of Ophthalmology
  • Society of Heed Fellows
  • North American Neuro-ophthalmology Society
  • International Congress of Neuro-ophthalmology
  • Pan American Association of Ophthalmology

Awards

  • Resident Teaching Award, USC School of Medicine, 1991-1994, 1996, 1999, 2001
  • Senior Resident Teaching Award, USC School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, 1994-94
  • American Academy of Ophthalmology Achievement Award, 2002
  • America’s Top Doctors, Sixth Edition, 2006, 2008, 2009
  • Best Doctors in America Award, 2006
  • Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors Award, 2008
  • LA Times Magazine Best Doctors in Southern California, 2009
  • Best Doctors in America Award, 2009
  • Los Angeles Magazine Super Doctors Award, 2010
  • Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors Award, 2010
  • Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors in Ophthalmology, 2013
  • Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors in Ophthalmology, 2014

Publications

  1. Fisher AC, McCulloch DL, Borchert MS, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Eleuteri A, et al. Comparison of human expert and computer-automated systems using magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) and bootstrap distribution statistics for the interpretation of pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in infants with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). Documenta ophthalmologica Advances in ophthalmology. 2015;131(1):25-34. Epub 2015/03/13. doi: 10.1007/s10633-015-9493-y. PubMed PMID: 25761929.
  2. Fink C, Borchert M, Simon CZ, Saper C. Hypothalamic dysfunction without hamartomas causing gelastic seizures in optic nerve hypoplasia. Journal of child neurology. 2015;30(2):233-7. Epub 2014/04/05. doi: 10.1177/0883073814527156. PubMed PMID: 24700666.
  3. Williams ME, Fink C, Zamora I, Borchert M. Autism assessment in children with optic nerve hypoplasia and other vision impairments. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 2014;56(1):66-72. Epub 2013/09/05. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12264. PubMed PMID: 24000901.
  4. Borchert M, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Geffner M, Nelson M. Re: Ramakrishnaiah et al.: Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of hypopituitarism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (Ophthalmology 2014;121:387-91). Ophthalmology. 2014;121(5):e26-7. Epub 2014/02/26. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.12.007. PubMed PMID: 24565741.
  5. Wen G, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Cotter SA, Borchert M, Lin J, et al. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in non-Hispanic white and Asian children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(10):2109-16. Epub 2013/08/21. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.06.039. PubMed PMID: 23953098; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3902090.
  6. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Borchert M, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin J, Wen G, et al. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Asian and non-Hispanic white preschool children: Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(6):1220-6. Epub 2013/04/09. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.12.029. PubMed PMID: 23561327.
  7. McKean-Cowdin R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Wen G, Kim J, Borchert M, et al. Prevalence of amblyopia or strabismus in asian and non-Hispanic white preschool children: multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(10):2117-24. Epub 2013/05/24. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.03.001. PubMed PMID: 23697956.
  8. Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M. Optic nerve hypoplasia syndrome: a review of the epidemiology and clinical associations. Current treatment options in neurology. 2013;15(1):78-89. Epub 2012/12/13. doi: 10.1007/s11940-012-0209-2. PubMed PMID: 23233151; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3576022.
  9. Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M. Prenatal determinants of optic nerve hypoplasia: review of suggested correlates and future focus. Survey of ophthalmology. 2013;58(6):610-9. Epub 2013/10/29. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2013.02.004. PubMed PMID: 24160732; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3879141.
  10. Fink C, Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M. Failure of stem cell therapy to improve visual acuity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2013;17(5):490-3. Epub 2013/10/29. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2013.06.012. PubMed PMID: 24160969.
  11. Vedin AM, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Borchert M, Geffner ME. Serum prolactin concentrations in relation to hypopituitarism and obesity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Hormone research in paediatrics. 2012;77(5):277-80. Epub 2012/05/11. doi: 10.1159/000338330 PubMed PMID: 22572701; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3578391.
  12. Prasov L, Masud T, Khaliq S, Mehdi SQ, Abid A, Oliver ER, et al. ATOH7 mutations cause autosomal recessive persistent hyperplasia of the primary vitreous. Human molecular genetics. 2012;21(16):3681-94. Epub 2012/05/31. doi: 10.1093/hmg/dds197. PubMed PMID: 22645276; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3406761.
  13. Fink C, Vedin AM, Garcia-Filion P, Ma NS, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone in children with optic nerve hypoplasia: associations with hypothyroidism and vision. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2012;16(5):418-23. Epub 2012/10/23. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2012.05.012. PubMed PMID: 23084376; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3481172.
  14. Borchert M. Reappraisal of the optic nerve hypoplasia syndrome. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. 2012;32(1):58-67. Epub 2012/02/15. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0b013e31824442b8. PubMed PMID: 22330852.
  15. Wen G, McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Borchert M, et al. General health-related quality of life in preschool children with strabismus or amblyopia. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(3):574-80. Epub 2010/10/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.06.039. PubMed PMID: 20884059; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3017225.
  16. Vedin AM, Karlsson H, Fink C, Borchert M, Geffner ME. Presenting features and long-term effects of growth hormone treatment of children with optic nerve hypoplasia/septo-optic dysplasia. International journal of pediatric endocrinology. 2011;2011(1):17. Epub 2011/11/17. doi: 10.1186/1687-9856-2011-17. PubMed PMID: 22085631; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3256097.
  17. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Varma R, Cotter SA, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin JH, Borchert MS, et al. Risk factors for decreased visual acuity in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(11):2262-73. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.033. PubMed PMID: 21856014; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3208077.
  18. O’Neil S, Ji L, Buranahirun C, Azoff J, Dhall G, Khatua S, et al. Neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric and adolescent patients with central nervous system germinoma treated with a strategy of chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose and volume irradiation. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2011;57(4):669-73. Epub 2011/04/16. doi: 10.1002/pbc.23146. PubMed PMID: 21495164.
  19. McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Borchert MS, Lin JH, et al. Risk factors for astigmatism in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(10):1974-81. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.031. PubMed PMID: 21856010; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3186875.
  20. Fozailoff A, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter S, Wen G, Lin J, Borchert M, et al. Prevalence of astigmatism in 6- to 72-month-old African American and Hispanic children: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(2):284-93. Epub 2010/10/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.06.038. PubMed PMID: 20888047; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3017730.
  21. Fink C, Borchert M. Optic nerve hypoplasia and autism; common features of spectrum diseases. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness. 2011;6:334-8.
  22. Cotter SA, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin J, Wen G, et al. Risk factors associated with childhood strabismus: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(11):2251-61. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.032. PubMed PMID: 21856012; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3208120.
  23. Borchert MS, Varma R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin JH, et al. Risk factors for hyperopia and myopia in preschool children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(10):1966-73. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.030. PubMed PMID: 21856013; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3186878.
  24. Rivkees SA, Fink C, Nelson M, Borchert M. Prevalence and risk factors for disrupted circadian rhythmicity in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. The British journal of ophthalmology. 2010;94(10):1358-62. Epub 2010/06/26. doi: 10.1136/bjo.2009.175851. PubMed PMID: 20576785.
  25. McCulloch DL, Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Chaplin CA, Borchert MS. Clinical electrophysiology and visual outcome in optic nerve hypoplasia. The British journal of ophthalmology. 2010;94(8):1017-23. Epub 2009/12/04. doi: 10.1136/bjo.2009.161117. PubMed PMID: 19955198.
  26. Ma NS, Fink C, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Evolving central hypothyroidism in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM. 2010;23(1-2):53-8. Epub 2010/05/04. PubMed PMID: 20432806.
  27. Garcia-Filion P, Fink C, Geffner ME, Borchert M. Optic nerve hypoplasia in North America: a re-appraisal of perinatal risk factors. Acta ophthalmologica. 2010;88(5):527-34. Epub 2009/01/15. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2008.01450.x. PubMed PMID: 19141149; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3319088.
  28. Borchert M, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Liu N, Azen SP, Varma R. Anisometropia in Hispanic and african american infants and young children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(1):148-53.e1. Epub 2009/10/13. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.06.008. PubMed PMID: 19818509; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2814917.
  29. Pan Y, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Wen G, Borchert MS, Azen SP, et al. Visual acuity norms in pre-school children: the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 2009;86(6):607-12. Epub 2009/05/12. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e3181a76e55. PubMed PMID: 19430325; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2742505.
  30. Group M-EPEDSM. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in African-American and Hispanic preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(10):1990-2000.e1. Epub 2009/07/14. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.03.027. PubMed PMID: 19592106; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2757506.
  31. Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Song E, Lin J, Borchert M, Azen SP, et al. Fixation preference and visual acuity testing in a population-based cohort of preschool children with amblyopia risk factors. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(1):145-53. Epub 2008/10/31. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.08.031. PubMed PMID: 18962921; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2699252.
  32. Chaplin C, Borchert MS, Fink C, Garcia-Filion P, McCulloch DL. Light-adapted electroretinograms in optic nerve hypoplasia. Documenta ophthalmologica Advances in ophthalmology. 2009;119(2):123-32. Epub 2009/08/12. doi: 10.1007/s10633-009-9188-3. PubMed PMID: 19669817.
  33. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Lin J, Deneen J, Cotter SA, Azen SP, Borchert MS, et al. Stereoacuity testability in African-American and Hispanic pre-school children. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. 2008;85(3):158-63. Epub 2008/03/05. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e3181643ea7. PubMed PMID: 18317330.
  34. Ortiz S, Borchert M. Long-term outcomes of pediatric ocular myasthenia gravis. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(7):1245-8.e1. Epub 2007/12/25. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.10.022. PubMed PMID: 18155768.
  35. Garcia-Filion P, Epport K, Nelson M, Azen C, Geffner ME, Fink C, et al. Neuroradiographic, endocrinologic, and ophthalmic correlates of adverse developmental outcomes in children with optic nerve hypoplasia: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 2008;121(3):e653-9. Epub 2008/02/06. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1825. PubMed PMID: 18250116.
  36. Chirapapaisan N, Borchert MS. Pediatric optic neuritis. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2008;91(3):323-30. Epub 2008/06/26. PubMed PMID: 18575284.
  37. Borchert M, Wang Y, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter S, Deneen J, Azen S, et al. Testability of the Retinomax autorefractor and IOLMaster in preschool children: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(8):1422-5, 5.e1. Epub 2008/01/01. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.10.036. PubMed PMID: 18164067.
  38. Borchert M, Garcia-Filion P. The syndrome of optic nerve hypoplasia. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. 2008;8(5):395-403. Epub 2008/08/21. PubMed PMID: 18713575.
  39. Ahmad T, Borchert M, Geffner M. Optic nerve hypoplasia and hypopituitarism. Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER. 2008;5(3):772-7. Epub 2008/03/28. PubMed PMID: 18367998.
  40. McCulloch DL, Garcia-Filion P, van Boemel GB, Borchert MS. Retinal function in infants with optic nerve hypoplasia: electroretinograms to large patterns and photopic flash. Eye (London, England). 2007;21(6):712-20. Epub 2006/04/08. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6702309. PubMed PMID: 16601748.
  41. Engel BC, Podsakoff GM, Ireland JL, Smogorzewska EM, Carbonaro DA, Wilson K, et al. Prolonged pancytopenia in a gene therapy patient with ADA-deficient SCID and trisomy 8 mosaicism: a case report. Blood. 2007;109(2):503-6. Epub 2006/09/16. doi: 10.1182/blood-2006-06-031476. PubMed PMID: 16973956; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1785101.
  42. Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Wang Y, Azen SP, Dilauro A, Borchert M, et al. Visual acuity testability in African-American and Hispanic children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2007;144(5):663-7. Epub 2007/09/18. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2007.07.014. PubMed PMID: 17868633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2099260.
  43. Varma R, Deneen J, Cotter S, Paz SH, Azen SP, Tarczy-Hornoch K, et al. The multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study: design and methods. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2006;13(4):253-62. Epub 2006/08/01. doi: 10.1080/09286580600719055. PubMed PMID: 16877284.
  44. La Via WV, Lambert JL, Pelletier MJ, Morookian JM, Sirk SJ, Mickiene D, et al. Measurement of amphotericin B concentration by resonant Raman spectroscopy–a novel technique that may be useful for non-invasive monitoring. Medical mycology. 2006;44(2):169-74. Epub 2006/03/08. PubMed PMID: 16519020.
  45. Borchert M, Lambert J, Sliney D. Validation of ICNIRP estimates of toxicity thresholds for NIR (785 nm) light in the retinas of pigmented rabbits. Health physics. 2006;90(1):3-10. Epub 2005/12/13. PubMed PMID: 16340602.
  46. Ahmad T, Garcia-Filion P, Borchert M, Kaufman F, Burkett L, Geffner M. Endocrinological and auxological abnormalities in young children with optic nerve hypoplasia: a prospective study. The Journal of pediatrics. 2006;148(1):78-84. Epub 2006/01/21. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.08.050. PubMed PMID: 16423602.
  47. Pelletier CC, Lambert JL, Borchert M. Determination of glucose in human aqueous humor using Raman spectroscopy and designed-solution calibration. Applied spectroscopy. 2005;59(8):1024-31. Epub 2005/08/18. doi: 10.1366/0003702054615133. PubMed PMID: 16105211.
  48. Lambert JL, Pelletier CC, Borchert M. Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy. Journal of biomedical optics. 2005;10(3):031110. Epub 2005/10/19. doi: 10.1117/1.1914843. PubMed PMID: 16229635.
  49. Mitchell WG, Davalos-Gonzalez Y, Brumm VL, Aller SK, Burger E, Turkel SB, et al. Opsoclonus-ataxia caused by childhood neuroblastoma: developmental and neurologic sequelae. Pediatrics. 2002;109(1):86-98. Epub 2002/01/05. PubMed PMID: 11773546.
  50. Lambert JL, Morookian JM, Sirk SJ, Borchert MS. Measurement of aqueous glucose in a model anterior chamber using Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2002;33(7):524-9. doi: 10.1002/jrs.871.
  51. Chung M, Stout JT, Borchert MS. Clinical diversity of hereditary Duane’s retraction syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(3):500-3. Epub 2000/03/11. PubMed PMID: 10711888.
  52. Ott S, Borchert M, Chung M, Appukuttan B, Wang X, Weinberg K, et al. Exclusion of candidate genetic loci for Duane retraction syndrome. American journal of ophthalmology. 1999;127(3):358-60. Epub 1999/03/24. PubMed PMID: 10088756.
  53. Hwang JM, Matsumoto ER, Borchert MS. The relationship between stereopsis and monocular optokinetic optokinetic nystagmus after infantile cataracts. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1999;3(4):221-6. Epub 1999/09/07. PubMed PMID: 10477224.
  54. Cinciripini GS, Donahue S, Borchert MS. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in prepubertal pediatric patients: characteristics, treatment, and outcome. American journal of ophthalmology. 1999;127(2):178-82. Epub 1999/02/25. PubMed PMID: 10030560.
  55. Borchert MS, Storrie-Lombardi MC, Lambert JL. A noninvasive glucose monitor: preliminary results in rabbits. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. 1999;1(2):145-51. Epub 2001/07/28. PubMed PMID: 11475286.
  56. Appukuttan B, Gillanders E, Juo SH, Freas-Lutz D, Ott S, Sood R, et al. Localization of a gene for Duane retraction syndrome to chromosome 2q31. American journal of human genetics. 1999;65(6):1639-46. Epub 1999/12/01. doi: 10.1086/302656. PubMed PMID: 10577917; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1288374.
  57. Rostomian K, Thach AB, Isfahani A, Pakkar A, Pakkar R, Borchert M. Open globe injuries in children. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1998;2(4):234-8. Epub 1999/10/26. PubMed PMID: 10532742.
  58. McCulloch DL, Van Boemel GB, Borchert MS. Comparisons of contact lens, foil, fiber and skin electrodes for patterns electroretinograms. Documenta ophthalmologica Advances in ophthalmology. 1997;94(4):327-40. Epub 1997/01/01. PubMed PMID: 9858093.
  59. Legmann Simon A, Borchert M. Etiology and prognosis of acute, late-onset esotropia. Ophthalmology. 1997;104(8):1348-52. Epub 1997/08/01. PubMed PMID: 9261325.
  60. Edelman PM, Borchert MS. Visual outcome in high hypermetropia. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1997;1(3):147-50. Epub 1999/10/26. PubMed PMID: 10532776.
  61. Borchert MS, Lessell S, Hoyt WF. Hemifield slide diplopia from altitudinal visual field defects. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society. 1996;16(2):107-9. Epub 1996/06/01. PubMed PMID: 8797166.
  62. Borchert M, McCulloch D, Rother C, Stout AU. Clinical assessment, optic disk measurements, and visual-evoked potential in optic nerve hypoplasia. American journal of ophthalmology. 1995;120(5):605-12. Epub 1995/11/01. PubMed PMID: 7485362.
  63. Aiello A, Wright KW, Borchert M. Independence of optokinetic nystagmus asymmetry and binocularity in infantile esotropia. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1994;112(12):1580-3. Epub 1994/12/01. PubMed PMID: 7993213.
  64. Stout AU, Borchert M. Etiology of eyelid retraction in children: a retrospective study. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. 1993;30(2):96-9. Epub 1993/03/01. PubMed PMID: 8501625.
  65. Gonzalez VH, Ober RR, Borchert MS, Bui KC, Ramos AD, Stout AU. Ocular findings in neonates after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa). 1993;13(3):202-7. Epub 1993/01/01. PubMed PMID: 8235100.
  66. Rismondo V, Borchert M. Position-dependent Parinaud’s syndrome. American journal of ophthalmology. 1992;114(1):107-8. Epub 1992/07/15. PubMed PMID: 1621779.
  67. Branley MG, Wright KW, Borchert MS. Third nerve palsy due to cerebral artery aneurysm in a child. Australian and New Zealand journal of ophthalmology. 1992;20(2):137-40. Epub 1992/05/01. PubMed PMID: 1389132.
  68. Gangadhar DV, Johnson LN, Borchert M. Isolated weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle from myasthenia gravis. Neuro-Ophthalmology. 1989;9(6):327-9. Epub July 08, 2009.
  69. Wagner WH, Weaver FA, Brinkley JR, Borchert M, Lindsay SF. Chronic ocular ischemia and neovascular glaucoma: a result of extracranial carotid artery disease. Journal of vascular surgery. 1988;8(5):551-7. Epub 1988/11/01. PubMed PMID: 3184312.
  70. Borchert M, Sadun AA. Bright light stimuli as a mask of relative afferent pupillary defects. American journal of ophthalmology. 1988;106(1):98-9. Epub 1988/07/15. PubMed PMID: 3394776.
  71. Borchert M, Lessell S. Progressive and recurrent nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. American journal of ophthalmology. 1988;106(4):443-9. Epub 1988/10/15. PubMed PMID: 3177563.
  72. Schwartz SD, Borchert M, Oberman A. Hypopyon keratouveitis in acute angle-closure glaucoma. American journal of ophthalmology. 1987;104(4):430-1. Epub 1987/10/15. PubMed PMID: 3661656.
  73. Sadun AA, Borchert M, DeVita E, Hinton DR, Bassi CJ. Assessment of visual impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. American journal of ophthalmology. 1987;104(2):113-20. Epub 1987/08/15. PubMed PMID: 3618708.
  74. Borchert MS, Sadun AA, Sommers JD, Wright KW. Congenital ocular motor apraxia in twins. Findings with magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of clinical neuro-ophthalmology. 1987;7(2):104-7. Epub 1987/06/01. PubMed PMID: 2956282.
  75. Young EJ, Borchert M, Kretzer FL, Musher DM. Phagocytosis and killing of Brucella by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The Journal of infectious diseases. 1985;151(4):682-90. Epub 1985/04/01. PubMed PMID: 3919118.