DoctorsRohit Varma, MD, MPH

Rohit Varma, MD, MPH

Title: Dean, Keck School of Medicine of USC, May S. and John Hooval Dean's Chair in Medicine, Grace and Emery Beardsley Chair in Ophthalmology, Chair, USC Care Board of Directors, Director of the USC Roski Eye Institute

Department: Ophthalmology

Clinical Specialty: Glaucoma

Treatment Expertise: Glaucoma, Cataract, Eye Diseases

Certification: American Board of Ophthalmology

Language: English, Hindi, Punjabi

Location: Los Angeles, Arcadia, and Beverly Hills

Biography and Education

Biography

Rohit Varma, MD, MPH, earned his medical degree at the University of Delhi, India. He also obtained a Masters in Public Health from Johns Hopkins University. He completed his residency at the Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland and two glaucoma fellowships: one at the Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia, and the other at the University of Southern California. He is an expert on changes in the optic nerve in glaucoma, and is also studying new imaging techniques in the early diagnosis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage.

More recently, Dr. Varma has been involved in the development of novel implantable IOP sensors and drainage devices. He has 247 publications in various peer-reviewed ophthalmic journals, co-authored two ophthalmic books, and is an editor on Advanced Glaucoma Surgery (Essentials in Ophthalmology). Dr. Varma’s community health studies of racial/ethnic populations have had a direct influence on changing public health policy in America. Dr. Varma is also one of the editors of Topics in Glaucoma, a continuing medical education publication.

Research Interests:

Dr. Varma is one of the world’s foremost experts in the epidemiology of eye diseases. His primary research focuses on epidemiologic studies of eye disease in children and aging populations. He is the principal investigator of three large NIH/National Eye Institute -funded studies of eye disease in ethnic populations: Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES), the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES) and the African American Eye Study (AFEDS). He was also the PI for the NIH/NEI funded Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Diseases Study (MEPEDS).

In addition, Dr. Varma and his colleagues Drs. Humayun and Rodger, have recently created a chronically implantable drug delivery pump for delivery of anti-VEGF agents to the eye for diabetic macular edema and AMD. The pump provides the first of its kind nanoliter/minute flow rates at programmable intervals and is refillable in the office at up to 6-month intervals. Other possible applications include intraocular pressure control and local drug delivery of immunomodulatory agents for uveitis.

See Dr. Varma discuss growing lesions in patients with geographic atrophy causing slower reading speed and positive data on the Xen gel stent.

Education

  • MD, University of Delhi, India, 1985

Internship

  • Union Memorial Hospital, Internal Medicine, 1989 – 1990

Residency

  • Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, 1990 – 1993

Fellowship

  • Wills Eye Hospital, Post-Doctoral, 1986 – 1989
  • University of Southern California, Clinical Glaucoma, 1993 – 1994

Textbook

Advanced Glaucoma Surgery Textbook 5 essentials of eyecare

Accomplishments

Professional society memberships

  • American Academy of Ophthalmology
  • Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
  • Glaucoma Research Society

Awards

  • National Science Talent Award, 1980 – 1985
  • Indian Council for Medical Research, 1982
  • Goldberg Award, 1986 – 1989
  • Fight for Sight Post-Doctoral Award, 1987 – 1988, 1988 – 1989
  • Dana Foundation Award, 1988 – 1989
  • Topcon Corporation Award, 1988 -1989
  • Delta Omega Society Award, 1989
  • Topcon Corporation Award, 1991-1993
  • National Eye Institute Travel Award, 1993
  • National Eye Institute National Research Service Award, 1994 – 1997
  • Fight for Sight Grant-in Aid Award, 1994 – 1995
  • Knights Templar Grant Award, 1995 – 1996
  • Beckman Young Investigators Award, 1996 – 1998
  • Research to Prevent Blindness Career Development Award, 1997 – 2001
  • American Academy of Ophthalmology Honor Award, 1998
  • Research to Prevent Blindness Sybil B. Harrington Scholar Award, 2003
  • American Academy of Ophthalmology Achievement Award, 2006
  • President’s Award-Glaucoma Research Foundation, 2009
  • ARVO Fellow Silver Award, 2009
  • Chicago Super Doctors Award, 2012
  • Castle Connolly Medical Top Doctors Award, 2013
  • Chicago Super Doctors Award, 2013
  • Pasadena Magazine Top Doctors of 2013 Award, 2013 – 2015
  • AAO Secretariat Award, 2014
  • Castle Connolly “Top Doctor,” 2015
  • Best Doctors in America, 2015-2016
  • AAO Lifetime Achievement Award, 2016
  • National Medical Fellowships, Innovation in Medicine Award, 2017

Publications

  1. Zhang X, Dastiridou A, Francis BA, Tan O, Varma R, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, Sehi M, Chopra V, Huang D. Baseline Fourier-Domain Oct Structural Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Dec;172:94-103.
  2. Kimel M, Leidy NK, Tschosik E, Dolan C, Souied EH, Varma R, Bressler NM. Functional Reading Independence (Fri) Index: A New Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Patients with Geographic Atrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Nov 1;57(14):6298-304.
  3. Varma R, Torres M, McKean-Cowdin R, Rong F, Hsu C, Jiang X. Prevalence of Refractive Error in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Oct 18.
  4. Fini ME, Schwartz SG, Gao X, Jeong S, Patel N, Itakura T, Price MO, Price FW, Jr., Varma R, Stamer WD. Steroid-Induced Ocular Hypertension/Glaucoma: Focus on Pharmacogenomics and Implications for Precision Medicine. Prog Retin Eye Res. Epub 2016 Sep 22.
  5. Gao X, Nannini DR, Corrao K, Torres M, Chen YI, Fan BJ, Wiggs JL, Taylor KD, James Gauderman W, Rotter JI, Varma R. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Wnt7b as a Novel Locus for Central Corneal Thickness in Latinos. Hum Mol Genet. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
  6. Suner IJ, Bressler NM, Varma R, Dolan CM, Ward J, Turpcu A. Responsiveness of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 to Visual Acuity Gains in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: Evidence from the Ride and Rise Trials. Retina. 2016 Sep 23.
  7. Murakami Y, Wang D, Burkemper B, Lin SC, Varma R. A Population-Based Assessment of the Agreement between Grading of Goniophotographic Images and Gonioscopy in the Chinese-American Eye Study (Ches). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Aug 1;57(10):4512-6.
  8. Richter GM, Zhang X, Tan O, Francis BA, Chopra V, Greenfield DS, Varma R, Schuman JS, Huang D. Regression Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Disc Variables for Glaucoma Diagnosis. J Glaucoma. 2016 Aug;25(8):634-42.
  9. Varma R, Jiang X. The Role of Contextual Factors in Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Eye Care Use. JAMA Ophthalmol. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
  10. Varma R, Kim JS, Burkemper BS, Wen G, Torres M, Hsu C, Choudhury F, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Chinese American Adults: The Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Jul 1;134(7):785-93.
  11. Varma R, Vajaranant TS, Burkemper B, Wu S, Torres M, Hsu C, Choudhury F, McKean-Cowdin R. Visual Impairment and Blindness in Adults in the United States: Demographic and Geographic Variations from 2015 to 2050. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Jul 1;134(7):802-9.
  12. Choudhury F, Varma R, Klein R, Gauderman WJ, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Quality of Life in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Jun 1;134(6):683-90.
  13. Varma R, Wen G, Jiang X, Hsu C, Torres M, Klein R, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Adult Chinese American Individuals: The Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. Epub 2016 Apr 7.
  14. Varma R, Choudhury F, Chen S, Wu S, Hsu C, Torres M, Klein R, Azen SP, McKean-Cowdin R. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Chinese American Adults: The Chinese American Eye Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. Epub 2016 Apr 7.
  15. Nannini D, Torres M, Chen YD, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Varma R, Gao X. Reply. Ophthalmology. 2016 Apr;123(4):e31-2.
  16. Dugel PU, Layton A, Varma RB. Diabetic Macular Edema Diagnosis and Treatment in the Real World: An Analysis of Medicare Claims Data (2008 to 2010). Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016 Mar;47(3):258-67.
  17. Zhang X, Francis BA, Dastiridou A, Chopra V, Tan O, Varma R, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, Huang D. Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Analyses of Age Effects on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Ganglion Cell Complex Thickness by Fourier-Domain Oct. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2016 Mar;5(2):1.
  18. Zhang X, Loewen N, Tan O, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, Varma R, Huang D. Predicting Development of Glaucomatous Visual Field Conversion Using Baseline Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016 Mar;163:29-37.
  19. Bressler NM, Varma R, Mitchell P, Suner IJ, Dolan C, Ward J, Ferreira A, Ehrlich JS, Turpcu A. Effect of Ranibizumab on the Decision to Drive and Vision Function Relevant to Driving in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: Report from Restore, Ride, and Rise Trials. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Feb;134(2):160-6.
  20. Nannini D, Torres M, Chen YD, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Varma R, Gao X. African Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Latinos. Ophthalmology. 2016 Jan;123(1):102-8.
  21. Varma R, Haller JA, Kaiser PK. Improvement in Patient-Reported Visual Function After Ocriplasmin for Vitreomacular Adhesion: Results of the Microplasmin for Intravitreous Injection-Traction Release Without Surgical Treatment (MIVI-TRUST) Trials. JAMA ophthalmology. 2015;133(9):997-1004. Epub 2015/06/13. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.1746. PubMed PMID: 26068086.
  22. Varma R, Bressler NM, Doan QV, Danese M, Dolan CM, Lee A, et al. Visual Impairment and Blindness Avoided with Ranibizumab in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Whites with Diabetic Macular Edema in the United States. Ophthalmology. 2015;122(5):982-9. Epub 2015/02/12. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.12.007. PubMed PMID: 25670501.
  23. Srinivas S, Tan O, Wu S, Nittala MG, Huang D, Varma R, et al. Measurement of retinal blood flow in normal Chinese-American subjects by Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2015;56(3):1569-74. Epub 2015/02/12. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15038. PubMed PMID: 25670487; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4351651.
  24. Le PV, Zhang X, Francis BA, Varma R, Greenfield DS, Schuman JS, et al. Advanced imaging for glaucoma study: design, baseline characteristics, and inter-site comparison. American journal of ophthalmology. 2015;159(2):393-403.e2. Epub 2014/12/03. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2014.11.010. PubMed PMID: 25447111; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4277893.
  25. Xie JZ, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Lin J, Cotter SA, Torres M, Varma R. Color vision deficiency in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(7):1469-74. Epub 2014/04/08. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.01.018. PubMed PMID: 24702753.
  26. Wang M, Lu AT, Varma R, Schuman JS, Greenfield DS, Huang D. Combining information from 3 anatomic regions in the diagnosis of glaucoma with time-domain optical coherence tomography. Journal of glaucoma. 2014;23(3):129-35. Epub 2012/07/26. doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e318264b941. PubMed PMID: 22828002; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3535579.
  27. Varma R, Bressler NM, Doan QV, Gleeson M, Danese M, Bower JK, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for diabetic macular edema in the United States. JAMA ophthalmology. 2014;132(11):1334-40. Epub 2014/08/16. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.2854. PubMed PMID: 25125075; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4576994.
  28. Kempen JH, Sugar EA, Varma R, Dunn JP, Heinemann MH, Jabs DA, et al. Risk of cataract among subjects with acquired immune deficiency syndrome free of ocular opportunistic infections. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(12):2317-24. Epub 2014/08/12. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.06.014. PubMed PMID: 25109932; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4252252.
  29. Kashani AH, Lopez Jaime GR, Saati S, Martin G, Varma R, Humayun MS. Noninvasive assessment of retinal vascular oxygen content among normal and diabetic human subjects: a study using hyperspectral computed tomographic imaging spectroscopy. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa). 2014;34(9):1854-60. Epub 2014/04/16. doi: 10.1097/iae.0000000000000146. PubMed PMID: 24732694; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4145024.
  30. Bressler NM, Varma R, Suner IJ, Dolan CM, Ward J, Ehrlich JS, et al. Vision-related function after ranibizumab treatment for diabetic macular edema: results from RIDE and RISE. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(12):2461-72. Epub 2014/08/26. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.008. PubMed PMID: 25148789.
  31. Bressler NM, Varma R, Doan QV, Gleeson M, Danese M, Bower JK, et al. Underuse of the health care system by persons with diabetes mellitus and diabetic macular edema in the United States. JAMA ophthalmology. 2014;132(2):168-73. Epub 2013/12/21. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.6426. PubMed PMID: 24357541; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4576971.
  32. Bressler NM, Varma R, Doan Q. Vulnerable populations in the underuse of the US Health Care System by persons with diabetes mellitus and diabetic macular edema-reply. JAMA ophthalmology. 2014;132(8):1030-1. Epub 2014/08/16. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.2445. PubMed PMID: 25124956.
  33. Varma R, McKean-Cowdin R, Vitale S, Slotkin J, Hays RD. Vision assessment using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology. 2013;80(11 Suppl 3):S37-40. Epub 2013/03/27. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182876e0a. PubMed PMID: 23479542; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3662341.
  34. Varma R, Hsu C, Wang D, Torres M, Azen SP. The chinese american eye study: design and methods. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2013;20(6):335-47. Epub 2013/09/21. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2013.823505. PubMed PMID: 24044409.
  35. Varma R. Author reply: To PMID 22771048. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(7):e45. Epub 2013/07/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.03.041. PubMed PMID: 23823521.
  36. Suner IJ, Bressler NM, Varma R, Lee P, Dolan CM, Ward J, et al. Reading speed improvements in retinal vein occlusion after ranibizumab treatment. JAMA ophthalmology. 2013;131(7):851-6. Epub 2013/05/24. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.114. PubMed PMID: 23699977.
  37. Le PV, Tan O, Chopra V, Francis BA, Ragab O, Varma R, et al. Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2013;54(6):4287-95. Epub 2013/05/30. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-11388. PubMed PMID: 23716631; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3691052.
  38. Bressler NM, Chang TS, Varma R, Suner I, Lee P, Dolan CM, et al. Driving ability reported by neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients after treatment with ranibizumab. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(1):160-8. Epub 2012/09/27. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.07.027. PubMed PMID: 23009891.
  39. Zheng L, Teng EL, Varma R, Mack WJ, Mungas D, Lu PH, et al. Chinese-language montreal cognitive assessment for cantonese or mandarin speakers: age, education, and gender effects. International journal of Alzheimer’s disease. 2012;2012:204623. Epub 2012/07/26. doi: 10.1155/2012/204623. PubMed PMID: 22830073; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3399373.
  40. Varma R, Bressler NM, Suner I, Lee P, Dolan CM, Ward J, et al. Improved vision-related function after ranibizumab for macular edema after retinal vein occlusion: results from the BRAVO and CRUISE trials. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(10):2108-18. Epub 2012/07/24. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.05.017. PubMed PMID: 22817833.
  41. Vajaranant TS, Wu S, Torres M, Varma R. The changing face of primary open-angle glaucoma in the United States: demographic and geographic changes from 2011 to 2050. American journal of ophthalmology. 2012;154(2):303-14.e3. Epub 2012/05/01. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2012.02.024. PubMed PMID: 22541661; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3401269.
  42. Vajaranant TS, Wu S, Torres M, Varma R. A 40-year forecast of the demographic shift in primary open-angle glaucoma in the United States. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53(5):2464-6. Epub 2012/05/09. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-9483d. PubMed PMID: 22562841.
  43. Rine RM, Roberts D, Corbin BA, McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Beaumont J, et al. New portable tool to screen vestibular and visual function–National Institutes of Health Toolbox initiative. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. 2012;49(2):209-20. Epub 2012/07/10. PubMed PMID: 22773523; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3741057.
  44. Richter GM, Torres M, Choudhury F, Azen SP, Varma R. Risk factors for cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular, and mixed lens opacities: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology.2012;119(3):547-54. Epub 2011/12/27. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.09.005. PubMed PMID: 22197433; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3293944.
  45. Richter GM, Choudhury F, Torres M, Azen SP, Varma R. Risk factors for incident cortical, nuclear, posterior subcapsular, and mixed lens opacities: the Los Angeles Latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(10):2040-7. Epub 2012/07/10. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.05.001. PubMed PMID: 22771048; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3464350.
  46. Patty L, Wu C, Torres M, Azen S, Varma R. Validity of self-reported eye disease and treatment in a population-based study: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(9):1725-30. Epub 2012/04/28. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.02.029. PubMed PMID: 22537615; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3413787.
  47. Pai AS, Rose KA, Samarawickrama C, Fotedar R, Burlutsky G, Varma R, et al. Testability of refraction, stereopsis, and other ocular measures in preschool children: the Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study. Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2012;16(2):185-92. Epub 2012/04/25. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2011.09.017. PubMed PMID: 22525178.
  48. Pai AS, Rose KA, Leone JF, Sharbini S, Burlutsky G, Varma R, et al. Amblyopia prevalence and risk factors in Australian preschool children. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(1):138-44. Epub 2011/10/04. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.024. PubMed PMID: 21963268.
  49. Kymes S, Varma R, Coleman AL. The economics of the initial preventive physical examination in medicare. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 2012;130(9):1232-3; author reply 3-4. Epub 2012/09/12. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.1217. PubMed PMID: 22965617.
  50. Jiang X, Varma R, Wu S, Torres M, Azen SP, Francis BA, et al. Baseline risk factors that predict the development of open-angle glaucoma in a population: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(11):2245-53. Epub 2012/07/17. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.05.030. PubMed PMID: 22796305; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3474872.
  51. Hwang JC, Konduru R, Zhang X, Tan O, Francis BA, Varma R, et al. Relationship among visual field, blood flow, and neural structure measurements in glaucoma. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53(6):3020-6. Epub 2012/03/27. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8552. PubMed PMID: 22447865; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3378085.
  52. Huang D, Chopra V, Lu AT, Tan O, Francis B, Varma R. Does optic nerve head size variation affect circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement by optical coherence tomography? Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53(8):4990-7. Epub 2012/06/30. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8214. PubMed PMID: 22743319.
  53. He M, Abdou A, Naidoo KS, Sapkota YD, Thulasiraj RD, Varma R, et al. Prevalence and correction of near vision impairment at seven sites in China, India, Nepal, Niger, South Africa, and the United States. American journal of ophthalmology. 2012;154(1):107-16.e1. Epub 2012/04/27. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2012.01.026. PubMed PMID: 22534109.
  54. Gatto NM, Varma R, Torres M, Wong TY, Johnson PL, Segal-Gidan F, et al. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognitive function in Latino adults in Los Angeles. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2012;19(3):127-36. Epub 2012/05/10. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2011.615452. PubMed PMID: 22568425; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3598630.
  55. Chabi A, Varma R, Tsai JC, Lupinacci R, Pigeon J, Baranak C, et al. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of preservative-free tafluprost and timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. American journal of ophthalmology. 2012;153(6):1187-96. Epub 2012/02/09. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.11.008. PubMed PMID: 22310086.
  56. Yonekawa Y, Varma R, Choudhury F, Torres M, Azen SP. Risk factors for four-year incident visual impairment and blindness: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(9):1790-7. Epub 2011/07/27. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.02.002. PubMed PMID: 21788079.
  57. Wen G, McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Borchert M, et al. General health-related quality of life in preschool children with strabismus or amblyopia. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(3):574-80. Epub 2010/10/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.06.039. PubMed PMID: 20884059; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3017225.
  58. Wang Y, Fawzi AA, Varma R, Sadun AA, Zhang X, Tan O, et al. Pilot study of optical coherence tomography measurement of retinal blood flow in retinal and optic nerve diseases. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2011;52(2):840-5. Epub 2010/11/06. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5985. PubMed PMID: 21051715; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3053109.
  59. Varma R, Lee PP, Goldberg I, Kotak S. An assessment of the health and economic burdens of glaucoma. American journal of ophthalmology. 2011;152(4):515-22. Epub 2011/10/04. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.06.004. PubMed PMID: 21961848; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3206636.
  60. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Varma R, Cotter SA, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin JH, Borchert MS, et al. Risk factors for decreased visual acuity in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(11):2262-73. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.033. PubMed PMID: 21856014; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3208077.
  61. Patino CM, Varma R, Azen SP, Conti DV, Nichol MB, McKean-Cowdin R. The impact of change in visual field on health-related quality of life the los angeles latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(7):1310-7. Epub 2011/04/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.12.018. PubMed PMID: 21458074; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3129408.
  62. Pan Y, Varma R. Natural history of glaucoma. Indian journal of ophthalmology. 2011;59 Suppl:S19-23. Epub 2010/12/22. doi: 10.4103/0301-4738.73682. PubMed PMID: 21150029; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3038509.
  63. Pai AS, Wang JJ, Samarawickrama C, Burlutsky G, Rose KA, Varma R, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for visual impairment in preschool children the sydney paediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(8):1495-500. Epub 2011/05/03. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.01.027. PubMed PMID: 21529955.
  64. Musch DC, Gillespie BW, Niziol LM, Lichter PR, Varma R. Intraocular pressure control and long-term visual field loss in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(9):1766-73. Epub 2011/05/24. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.01.047. PubMed PMID: 21600658; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3161134.
  65. McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Borchert MS, Lin JH, et al. Risk factors for astigmatism in preschool children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(10):1974-81. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.031. PubMed PMID: 21856010; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3186875.
  66. Mazhar K, Varma R, Choudhury F, McKean-Cowdin R, Shtir CJ, Azen SP. Severity of diabetic retinopathy and health-related quality of life: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(4):649-55. Epub 2010/11/03. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.08.003. PubMed PMID: 21035872; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3070833.
  67. Francis BA, Varma R, Vigen C, Lai MY, Winarko J, Nguyen B, et al. Population and high-risk group screening for glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2011;52(9):6257-64. Epub 2011/01/20. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-5126. PubMed PMID: 21245400; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3175989.
  68. Cotter SA, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin J, Wen G, et al. Risk factors associated with childhood strabismus: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(11):2251-61. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.032. PubMed PMID: 21856012; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3208120.
  69. Choudhury F, Varma R, McKean-Cowdin R, Klein R, Azen SP. Risk factors for four-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: the los angeles latino eye study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2011;152(3):385-95. Epub 2011/06/18. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.02.025. PubMed PMID: 21679916; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3159714.
  70. Caprioli J, Varma R. Intraocular pressure: modulation as treatment for glaucoma. American journal of ophthalmology. 2011;152(3):340-4.e2. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.05.029. PubMed PMID: 21855671.
  71. Bressler NM, Doan QV, Varma R, Lee PP, Suner IJ, Dolan C, et al. Estimated cases of legal blindness and visual impairment avoided using ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization: non-Hispanic white population in the United States with age-related macular degeneration. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 2011;129(6):709-17. Epub 2011/06/15. doi: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.140. PubMed PMID: 21670337.
  72. Borchert MS, Varma R, Cotter SA, Tarczy-Hornoch K, McKean-Cowdin R, Lin JH, et al. Risk factors for hyperopia and myopia in preschool children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease and Baltimore pediatric eye disease studies. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(10):1966-73. Epub 2011/08/23. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.030. PubMed PMID: 21856013; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3186878.
  73. Varma R, Richter GM, Torres M, Foong AW, Choudhury F, Azen SP. Four-year incidence and progression of lens opacities: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2010;149(5):728-34.e1-2. Epub 2010/02/26. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2009.11.012. PubMed PMID: 20181327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2867354.
  74. Varma R, Richman EA, Ferris FL, 3rd, Bressler NM. Use of patient-reported outcomes in medical product development: a report from the 2009 NEI/FDA Clinical Trial Endpoints Symposium. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2010;51(12):6095-103. Epub 2010/12/03. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5627. PubMed PMID: 21123768; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3055746.
  75. Varma R, Hwang L-J, Grunden JW, Bean GW. Using diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuation to assess the efficacy of fixed-combination latanoprost/timolol versus latanoprost or timolol monotherapy. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010;94(1):80-4.
  76. Varma R, Foong AW, Lai MY, Choudhury F, Klein R, Azen SP. Four-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2010;149(5):741-51. Epub 2010/04/20. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2010.01.009. PubMed PMID: 20399926; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3138505.
  77. Varma R, Chung J, Foong AW, Torres M, Choudhury F, Azen SP. Four-year incidence and progression of visual impairment in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2010;149(5):713-27. Epub 2010/04/20. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2009.12.011. PubMed PMID: 20399925; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2919324.
  78. Varma R, Choudhury F, Klein R, Chung J, Torres M, Azen SP. Four-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2010;149(5):752-61.e1-3. Epub 2010/02/13. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2009.11.014. PubMed PMID: 20149342; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2905589.
  79. Segal-Gidan F, Varma R, Salazar X, Mack WJ. Factors influencing driving status in an older Latino population. Journal of aging and health. 2010;22(3):332-47. Epub 2010/02/10. doi: 10.1177/0898264309358763. PubMed PMID: 20142628; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2896256.
  80. Saati S, Lo R, Li PY, Meng E, Varma R, Humayun MS. Mini drug pump for ophthalmic use. Current eye research. 2010;35(3):192-201. Epub 2010/04/09. doi: 10.3109/02713680903521936. PubMed PMID: 20373877; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2888264.
  81. Patino CM, McKean-Cowdin R, Azen SP, Allison JC, Choudhury F, Varma R. Central and peripheral visual impairment and the risk of falls and falls with injury. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(2):199-206.e1. Epub 2009/12/25. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.06.063. PubMed PMID: 20031225; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2819614.
  82. Morales LS, Varma R, Paz SH, Lai MY, Mazhar K, Andersen RM, et al. Self-reported use of eye care among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(2):207-15.e1. Epub 2009/12/19. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.07.015. PubMed PMID: 20018380; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2835414.
  83. Memarzadeh F, Ying-Lai M, Chung J, Azen SP, Varma R. Blood pressure, perfusion pressure, and open-angle glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2010;51(6):2872-7. Epub 2010/01/22. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-2956. PubMed PMID: 20089880; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2891455.
  84. McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Hays RD, Wu J, Choudhury F, Azen SP. Longitudinal changes in visual acuity and health-related quality of life: the Los Angeles Latino Eye study. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(10):1900-7, 7.e1. Epub 2010/06/24. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.01.059. PubMed PMID: 20570364; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2945425.
  85. Kuzin AA, Varma R, Reddy HS, Torres M, Azen SP. Ocular biometry and open-angle glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(9):1713-9. Epub 2010/06/24. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.01.035. PubMed PMID: 20570359; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2934756.
  86. Kim E, Varma R. Glaucoma in Latinos/Hispanics. Current opinion in ophthalmology. 2010;21(2):100-5. Epub 2009/12/31. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283360b1e. PubMed PMID: 20040873.
  87. Fraser-Bell S, Choudhury F, Klein R, Azen S, Varma R. Ocular risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2010;149(5):735-40. Epub 2010/02/09. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2009.11.013. PubMed PMID: 20138605; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2856762.
  88. Dirani M, Zhou B, Hornbeak D, Chang B, Gazzard G, Chia A, et al. Prevalence and causes of decreased visual acuity in Singaporean Chinese preschoolers. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010;94(12):1561-5.
  89. Chen P-J, Saati S, Varma R, Humayun MS, Tai Y-C. Wireless intraocular pressure sensing using microfabricated minimally invasive flexible-coiled LC sensor implant. Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of. 2010;19(4):721-34.
  90. Borchert M, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Liu N, Azen SP, Varma R. Anisometropia in Hispanic and african american infants and young children the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(1):148-53.e1. Epub 2009/10/13. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.06.008. PubMed PMID: 19818509; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2814917.
  91. Varma R, Hwang LJ, Grunden JW, Bean GW, Sultan MB. Assessing the efficacy of latanoprost vs timolol using an alternate efficacy parameter: the intervisit intraocular pressure range. American journal of ophthalmology. 2009;148(2):221-6. Epub 2009/05/12. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2009.02.035. PubMed PMID: 19427617.
  92. Saati S, Lo R, Li PY, Meng E, Varma R, Humayun MS. Mini drug pump for ophthalmic use. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 2009;107:60-70. Epub 2010/02/04. PubMed PMID: 20126483; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2814560.
  93. Richter GM, Chung J, Azen SP, Varma R. Prevalence of visually significant cataract and factors associated with unmet need for cataract surgery: Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(12):2327-35. Epub 2009/10/10. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.05.040. PubMed PMID: 19815276; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2787839.
  94. Memarzadeh F, Varma R, Lin LT, Parikh JG, Dustin L, Alcaraz A, et al. Postoperative use of bevacizumab as an antifibrotic agent in glaucoma filtration surgery in the rabbit. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2009;50(7):3233-7. Epub 2009/02/03. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-2441. PubMed PMID: 19182254.
  95. Group M-EPEDS. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in African-American and Hispanic preschool children: the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(10):1990-2000. e1.
  96. Varma R, Wang MY, Ying-Lai M, Donofrio J, Azen SP. The prevalence and risk indicators of uncorrected refractive error and unmet refractive need in Latinos: the Los AngelesLatino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2008;49(12):5264-73. Epub 2008/04/29. doi: 10.1167/iovs.08-1814. PubMed PMID: 18441303; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2758787.
  97. Varma R, Peeples P, Walt JG, Bramley TJ. Disease progression and the need for neuroprotection in glaucoma management. The American journal of managed care. 2008;14(1 Suppl):S15-9. Epub 2008/03/20. PubMed PMID: 18284311.
  98. Varma R, Mohanty SA, Deneen J, Wu J, Azen SP. Burden and predictors of undetected eye disease in Mexican-Americans: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Medical care. 2008;46(5):497-506. Epub 2008/04/29. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31816080fe. PubMed PMID: 18438198.
  99. Varma R, Hwang LJ, Grunden JW, Bean GW. Inter-visit intraocular pressure range: an alternative parameter for assessing intraocular pressure control in clinical trials. American journal of ophthalmology. 2008;145(2):336-42. Epub 2008/01/29. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2007.10.002. PubMed PMID: 18222194.
  100. Varma R. From a population to patients: the Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(11):1857-8. Epub 2008/12/11. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.09.023. PubMed PMID: 19068373.
  101. Tan O, Li G, Lu AT, Varma R, Huang D. Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(6):949-56. Epub 2007/11/06. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.08.011. PubMed PMID: 17981334; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2692598.
  102. Sanossian N, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R. Prevalence and risk factors for cerebrovascular disease in community-dwelling Latinos. Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2008;110(10):985-7. Epub 2008/07/29. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2008.06.009. PubMed PMID: 18657897; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2763560.
  103. Memarzadeh F, Ying-Lai M, Azen SP, Varma R. Associations with intraocular pressure in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2008;146(1):69-76. Epub 2008/05/20. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2008.03.015. PubMed PMID: 18486096; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2518614.
  104. McKean-Cowdin R, Wang Y, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R. Impact of visual field loss on health-related quality of life in glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(6):941-8.e1. Epub 2007/11/13. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.08.037. PubMed PMID: 17997485.
  105. Lu AT, Wang M, Varma R, Schuman JS, Greenfield DS, Smith SD, et al. Combining nerve fiber layer parameters to optimize glaucoma diagnosis with optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(8):1352-7, 7.e1-2. Epub 2008/06/03. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.01.011. PubMed PMID: 18514318; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2756507.
  106. Hoki SL, Varma R, Lai MY, Azen SP, Klein R. Prevalence and associations of asymptomatic retinal emboli in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). American journal of ophthalmology. 2008;145(1):143-8. Epub 2007/11/06. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2007.08.030. PubMed PMID: 17981255; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2219465.
  107. Group M-EPEDS. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in African American and Hispanic children ages 6 to 72 months: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(7):1229-36. e1.
  108. Fraser-Bell S, Varma R, Wu J, Klein R, Azen SP, Hooper C, Foong AW, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2008;145(2):308-16. Epub 2008/01/29. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2007.10.007. PubMed PMID: 18222193; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2278164.
  109. Francis BA, Varma R, Chopra V, Lai MY, Shtir C, Azen SP. Intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and prevalence of open-angle glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2008;146(5):741-6. Epub 2008/08/02. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2008.05.048. PubMed PMID: 18672218; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2583935.
  110. Doshi V, Ying-Lai M, Azen SP, Varma R. Sociodemographic, family history, and lifestyle risk factors for open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(4):639-47.e2. Epub 2007/09/29. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.05.032. PubMed PMID: 17900693.
  111. Chopra V, Varma R, Francis BA, Wu J, Torres M, Azen SP. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of open-angle glaucoma the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(2):227-32.e1. Epub 2007/08/25. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.04.049. PubMed PMID: 17716734.
  112. Broman AT, Varma R, Quigley HA, West SK, Katz J, Munoz B, Bandeen-Roche K, et al. Estimating the rate of progressive visual field damage in those with open-angle glaucoma, from cross-sectional data. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2008;49(1):66-76. Epub 2008/01/04. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-0866. PubMed PMID: 18172076; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2246309.
  113. Borchert M, Varma R, Wang Y, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Cotter S, Deneen J, Azen S, et al. Testability of the Retinomax autorefractor and IOLMaster in preschool children: the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(8):1422-5, 5.e1. Epub 2008/01/01. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.10.036. PubMed PMID: 18164067.
  114. Baranano AE, Wu J, Mazhar K, Azen SP, Varma R. Visual acuity outcomes after cataract extraction in adult latinos. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(5):815-21. Epub 2007/09/11. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.05.052. PubMed PMID: 17826836.
  115. Wu Z, Vazeen M, Varma R, Chopra V, Walsh AC, LaBree LD, et al. Factors associated with variability in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(8):1505-12. Epub 2007/03/21. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.10.061. PubMed PMID: 17367862.
  116. Varma R, Macias GL, Torres M, Klein R, Pena FY, Azen SP. Biologic risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(7):1332-40. Epub 2007/02/20. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.10.023. PubMed PMID: 17306879.
  117. Tedeschi-Blok N, Buckley J, Varma R, Triche TJ, Hinton DR. Population-based study of early age-related macular degeneration: role of the complement factor H Y402H polymorphism in bilateral but not unilateral disease. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(1):99-103. Epub 2007/01/03. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.07.043. PubMed PMID: 17198853.
  118. Memarzadeh F, Li Y, Chopra V, Varma R, Francis BA, Huang D. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography for imaging the anterior chamber after laser peripheral iridotomy. American journal of ophthalmology. 2007;143(5):877-9. Epub 2007/04/25. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2006.11.055. PubMed PMID: 17452177; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1913197.
  119. McKean-Cowdin R, Varma R, Wu J, Hays RD, Azen SP. Severity of visual field loss and health-related quality of life. American journal of ophthalmology. 2007;143(6):1013-23. Epub 2007/04/03. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2007.02.022. PubMed PMID: 17399676; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2731547.
  120. Ip JM, Huynh SC, Kifley A, Rose KA, Morgan IG, Varma R, et al. Variation of the contribution from axial length and other oculometric parameters to refraction by age and ethnicity. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2007;48(10):4846-53. Epub 2007/09/28. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-0101. PubMed PMID: 17898312.
  121. Francis BA, Hsieh A, Lai MY, Varma R, Chopra V, Pena F, Azen S, et al. Effects of corneal thickness, corneal curvature, and intraocular pressure level on Goldmann applanation tonometry and dynamic contour tonometry. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(1):20-6. Epub 2006/10/31. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.06.047. PubMed PMID: 17070592.
  122. Cotter SA, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Wang Y, Azen SP, Dilauro A, Borchert M, et al. Visual acuity testability in African-American and Hispanic children: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2007;144(5):663-7. Epub 2007/09/18. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2007.07.014. PubMed PMID: 17868633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2099260.
  123. Chen P-J, Rodger DC, Agrawal R, Saati S, Meng E, Varma R, et al. Implantable micromechanical parylene-based pressure sensors for unpowered intraocular pressure sensing. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. 2007;17(10):1931.
  124. Chao JR, Lai MY, Azen SP, Klein R, Varma R. Retinopathy in persons without diabetes: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2007;48(9):4019-25. Epub 2007/08/29. doi: 10.1167/iovs.07-0206. PubMed PMID: 17724182.
  125. Budenz DL, Anderson DR, Varma R, Schuman J, Cantor L, Savell J, et al. Determinants of normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by Stratus OCT. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(6):1046-52. Epub 2007/01/11. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.08.046. PubMed PMID: 17210181; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2916163.
  126. Varma R, Wu J, Chong K, Azen SP, Hays RD. Impact of severity and bilaterality of visual impairment on health-related quality of life. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(10):1846-53. Epub 2006/08/08. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.04.028. PubMed PMID: 16889831.
  127. Varma R, Winarko J, Kiat-Winarko T, Winarko B. Concentration of latanoprost ophthalmic solution after 4 to 6 weeks’ use in an eye clinic setting. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2006;47(1):222-5. Epub 2005/12/31. doi: 10.1167/iovs.04-1367. PubMed PMID: 16384966.
  128. Varma R, Deneen J, Cotter S, Paz SH, Azen SP, Tarczy-Hornoch K, et al. The multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study: design and methods. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2006;13(4):253-62. Epub 2006/08/01. doi: 10.1080/09286580600719055. PubMed PMID: 16877284.
  129. Varma R. Diabetic retinopathy: challenges and future directions. American journal of ophthalmology. 2006;141(3):539-41. Epub 2006/02/24. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2005.11.038. PubMed PMID: 16490503.
  130. Torres M, Azen S, Varma R. Prevalence of obesity and associated co-morbid conditions in a population-based sample of primarily urban Mexican Americans. Ethnicity & disease. 2006;16(2):362-9. Epub 2007/08/08. PubMed PMID: 17682236.
  131. Tarczy-Hornoch K, Ying-Lai M, Varma R. Myopic refractive error in adult Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2006;47(5):1845-52. Epub 2006/04/28. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-1153. PubMed PMID: 16638990.
  132. Skaf M, Bernardes AB, Varma R, Cardillo JA, Costa RA, Melo LA, Jr., Castro JC, et al. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profile in normal eyes using third-generation optical coherence tomography. Eye (London, England). 2006;20(4):431-9. Epub 2005/07/30. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701896. PubMed PMID: 16052259.
  133. Sadda SR, Tan O, Walsh AC, Schuman JS, Varma R, Huang D. Automated detection of clinically significant macular edema by grid scanning optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(7):1187.e1-12. Epub 2006/05/02. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2005.12.020. PubMed PMID: 16647123; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1779509.
  134. Paz SH, Varma R, Klein R, Wu J, Azen SP. Noncompliance with vision care guidelines in Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(8):1372-7. Epub 2006/06/14. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.04.018. PubMed PMID: 16769120.
  135. Fraser-Bell S, Wu J, Klein R, Azen SP, Varma R. Smoking, alcohol intake, estrogen use, and age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2006;141(1):79-87. Epub 2006/01/03. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2005.08.024. PubMed PMID: 16386980.
  136. Cotter SA, Varma R, Ying-Lai M, Azen SP, Klein R. Causes of low vision and blindness in adult Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(9):1574-82. Epub 2006/09/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.05.002. PubMed PMID: 16949442.
  137. Shufelt C, Fraser-Bell S, Ying-Lai M, Torres M, Varma R. Refractive error, ocular biometry, and lens opalescence in an adult population: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2005;46(12):4450-60. Epub 2005/11/24. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-0435. PubMed PMID: 16303933.
  138. Rolim de Moura C, Fraser-Bell S, Stout A, Labree L, Nilfors M, Varma R. Experience with the baerveldt glaucoma implant in the management of pediatric glaucoma. American journal of ophthalmology. 2005;139(5):847-54. Epub 2005/04/30. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2004.12.028. PubMed PMID: 15860290.
  139. Mack WJ, Teng E, Zheng L, Paz S, Chui H, Varma R. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology. 2005;27(5):591-8. Epub 2005/07/16. doi: 10.1080/13803390490918417. PubMed PMID: 16019635.
  140. Jonas J, Heatley G, Spaide R, Varma R. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and secondary ocular hypertension. Journal of glaucoma. 2005;14(2):168-71. Epub 2005/03/03. PubMed PMID: 15741821.
  141. Globe DR, Varma R, Torres M, Wu J, Klein R, Azen SP. Self-reported comorbidities and visual function in a population-based study: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 2005;123(6):815-21. Epub 2005/06/16. doi: 10.1001/archopht.123.6.815. PubMed PMID: 15955983.
  142. Fraser-Bell S, Donofrio J, Wu J, Klein R, Azen SP, Varma R. Sociodemographic factors and age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. American journal of ophthalmology. 2005;139(1):30-8. Epub 2005/01/18. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2004.08.029. PubMed PMID: 15652825.
  143. Varma R, Ying-Lai M, Klein R, Azen SP. Prevalence and risk indicators of visual impairment and blindness in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(6):1132-40. Epub 2004/06/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.02.002. PubMed PMID: 15177963.
  144. Varma R, Ying-Lai M, Francis BA, Nguyen BB, Deneen J, Wilson MR, et al. Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(8):1439-48. Epub 2004/08/04. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.01.025. PubMed PMID: 15288969.
  145. Varma R, Torres M, Pena F, Klein R, Azen SP. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in adult Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(7):1298-306. Epub 2004/07/06. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.03.002. PubMed PMID: 15234129.
  146. Varma R, Torres M. Prevalence of lens opacities in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(8):1449-56. Epub 2004/08/04. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.01.024. PubMed PMID: 15288970.
  147. Varma R, Paz SH, Azen SP, Klein R, Globe D, Torres M, et al. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study: design, methods, and baseline data. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(6):1121-31. Epub 2004/06/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.02.001. PubMed PMID: 15177962.
  148. Varma R, Fraser-Bell S, Tan S, Klein R, Azen SP. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino eye study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(7):1288-97. Epub 2004/07/06. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.01.023. PubMed PMID: 15234128.
  149. Unzueta M, Globe D, Wu J, Paz S, Azen S, Varma R. Compliance with recommendations for follow-up care in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ethnicity & disease. 2004;14(2):285-91. Epub 2004/05/11. PubMed PMID: 15132216.
  150. Globe DR, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R. The impact of visual impairment on self-reported visual functioning in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(6):1141-9. Epub 2004/06/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.02.003. PubMed PMID: 15177964.
  151. Fraser-Bell S, Ying-Lai M, Klein R, Varma R. Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2004;45(6):1732-6. Epub 2004/05/27. PubMed PMID: 15161833.
  152. Varma R, Bazzaz S, Lai M. Optical tomography-measured retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal latinos. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2003;44(8):3369-73. Epub 2003/07/29. PubMed PMID: 12882783.
  153. Tong L, Frazao K, LaBree L, Varma R. Intraocular pressure control and complications with two-stage insertion of the Baerveldt implant. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(2):353-8. Epub 2003/02/13. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(02)01752-9. PubMed PMID: 12578780.
  154. Paz SH, Globe DR, Wu J, Azen SP, Varma R. Relationship between self-reported depression and self-reported visual function in Latinos. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 2003;121(7):1021-7. Epub 2003/07/16. doi: 10.1001/archopht.121.7.1021. PubMed PMID: 12860807.
  155. Hahn S, Azen S, Ying-Lai M, Varma R. Central corneal thickness in Latinos. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2003;44(4):1508-12. Epub 2003/03/27. PubMed PMID: 12657586.
  156. Globe D, Varma R, Azen SP, Paz S, Yu E, Preston-Martin S. Psychometric performance of the NEI VFQ-25 in visually normal Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2003;44(4):1470-8. Epub 2003/03/27. PubMed PMID: 12657581.
  157. Fraser-Bell S, Varma R. Eye disease in Latinos. International ophthalmology clinics. 2003;43(4):79-89. Epub 2003/10/24. PubMed PMID: 14574203.
  158. Azen SP, Varma R, Preston-Martin S, Ying-Lai M, Globe D, Hahn S. Binocular visual acuity summation and inhibition in an ocular epidemiological study: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2002;43(6):1742-8. Epub 2002/05/31. PubMed PMID: 12036974.
  159. Skaf M, di Martino DS, de Arruda Mello PA, Varma R. Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to the filtering bleb in rabbits. Journal of glaucoma. 2001;10(6):470-6. Epub 2001/12/12. PubMed PMID: 11740217.
  160. Nazemi PP, Chong LP, Varma R, Burnstine MA. Migration of intraocular silicone oil into the subconjunctival space and orbit through an Ahmed glaucoma valve. American journal of ophthalmology. 2001;132(6):929-31. Epub 2001/12/04. PubMed PMID: 11730665.
  161. Vitale S, Smith TD, Quigley T, Kerrigan-Baumrind TA, Pease TE, Varma R, et al. Screening performance of functional and structural measurements of neural damage in open-angle glaucoma: a case-control study from the Baltimore Eye Survey. Journal of glaucoma. 2000;9(5):346-56. Epub 2000/10/20. PubMed PMID: 11039735.
  162. Budenz DL, Sakamoto D, Eliezer R, Varma R, Heuer DK. Two-staged Baerveldt glaucoma implant for childhood glaucoma associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(11):2105-10. Epub 2000/10/31. PubMed PMID: 11054342.
  163. Quigley HA, Varma R, Tielsch JM, Katz J, Sommer A, Gilbert DL. The relationship between optic disc area and open-angle glaucoma: the Baltimore Eye Survey. Journal of glaucoma. 1999;8(6):347-52. Epub 1999/12/22. PubMed PMID: 10604292.
  164. Varma R. Trabeculoplasty, trabeculectomy, and race: is there a difference in response to treatment between blacks and whites? Ophthalmology. 1998;105(7):1135-6. Epub 1998/07/15. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(98)97011-7. PubMed PMID: 9663213.
  165. Justice AC, Varma R, Cho MK, Winker MA, Berlin JA, Rennie D. Does masking author identity improve peer review quality? A randomized controlled trial. PEER Investigators. Jama. 1998;280(3):240-2. Epub 1998/07/24. PubMed PMID: 9676668.
  166. Varma R, Skaf M, Barron E. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal human eyes. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(12):2114-9. Epub 1996/12/01. PubMed PMID: 9003346.
  167. Tanji TM, Lundy DC, Minckler DS, Heuer DK, Varma R. Fascia lata patch graft in glaucoma tube surgery. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(8):1309-12. Epub 1996/08/01. PubMed PMID: 8764803.
  168. Varma R, Hilton SC, Tielsch JM, Katz J, Quigley HA, Sommer A. Neural rim area declines with increased intraocular pressure in urban Americans. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1995;113(8):1001-5. Epub 1995/08/01. PubMed PMID: 7639650.
  169. Varma R, Heuer DK, Lundy DC, Baerveldt G, Lee PP, Minckler DS. Pars plana Baerveldt tube insertion with vitrectomy in glaucomas associated with pseudophakia and aphakia. American journal of ophthalmology. 1995;119(4):401-7.
  170. Burgoyne CF, Quigley HA, Varma R. Comparison of clinician judgment with digitized image analysis in the detection of induced optic disk change in monkey eyes. American journal of ophthalmology. 1995;120(2):176-83. Epub 1995/08/01. PubMed PMID: 7639301.
  171. Burgoyne CF, Quigley HA, Thompson HW, Vitale S, Varma R. Early changes in optic disc compliance and surface position in experimental glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(12):1800-9.
  172. Burgoyne CF, Quigley HA, Thompson HW, Vitale S, Varma R. Measurement of optic disc compliance by digitized image analysis in the normal monkey eye. Ophthalmology. 1995;102(12):1790-9.
  173. Varma R, Miller NR. Primary oculomotor nerve synkinesis caused by an extracavernous intradural aneurysm. American journal of ophthalmology. 1994;118(1):83-7. Epub 1994/07/15. PubMed PMID: 8023880.
  174. Burgoyne CF, Varma R, Quigley HA, Vitale S, Pease ME, Lenane PL. Global and regional detection of induced optic disc change by digitized image analysis. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1994;112(2):261-8. Epub 1994/02/01. PubMed PMID: 8311780.
  175. Abrams LS, Scott IU, Spaeth GL, Quigley HA, Varma R. Agreement among optometrists, ophthalmologists, and residents in evaluating the optic disc for glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(10):1662-7. Epub 1994/10/01. PubMed PMID: 7936564.
  176. Varma R, Steinmann WC, Scott IU. Expert agreement in evaluating the optic disc for glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1992;99(2):215-21. Epub 1992/02/01. PubMed PMID: 1553210.
  177. Varma R, Quigley HA, Pease ME. Changes in the optic disc reflect changes in the number of optic nerve fibers in experimental glaucoma. American journal of ophthalmology. 1992;114:554-9.
  178. Varma R, Spaeth GL, Steinmann WC, Katz LJ. Agreement between clinicians and an image analyzer in estimating cup-to-disc ratios. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1989;107(4):526-9. Epub 1989/04/01. PubMed PMID: 2705920.
  179. Varma R, Douglas GR, Steinmann WC, Wijsman K, Mawson D, Spaeth GL. A comparative evaluation of three methods of analyzing optic disc topography. Ophthalmic surgery. 1989;20(11):813-9. Epub 1989/11/01. PubMed PMID: 2616130.
  180. Goldberg RE, Varma R, Spaeth GL, Magargal LE, Callen D. Quantification of progressive diabetic macular nonperfusion. Ophthalmic surgery. 1989;20(1):42-5. Epub 1989/01/01. PubMed PMID: 2927880.
  181. Goldberg RE, Varma R, Callen D. Quantification of macular reperfusion in a patient with ischemic diabetic maculopathy. Ophthalmic surgery. 1989;20(6):447-8. Epub 1989/06/01. PubMed PMID: 2748092.
  182. Feldman RM, Gross RL, Spaeth GL, Steinmann WC, Varma R, Katz LJ, et al. Risk factors for the development of Tenon’s capsule cysts after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology. 1989;96(3):336-41. Epub 1989/03/01. PubMed PMID: 2710525.
  183. Varma R, Steinmann WC, Spaeth GL, Wilson RP. Variability in digital analysis of optic disc topography. Graefe’s archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie. 1988;226(5):435-42. Epub 1988/01/01. PubMed PMID: 3192094.
  184. Varma R, Spaeth GL, Nicholl J. Detection of conjunctival leaks following filtration surgery. Ophthalmic surgery. 1988;19(4):293-4. Epub 1988/04/01. PubMed PMID: 3362507.
  185. Varma R, Spaeth GL. The PAR IS 2000: a new system for retinal digital image analysis. Ophthalmic surgery. 1988;19(3):183-92. Epub 1988/03/01. PubMed PMID: 3353084.
  186. Varma R, Spaeth GL, Katz LJ, Feldman RM. Collateral vessel formation in the optic disc in glaucoma. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1987;105(9):1287. Epub 1987/09/01. PubMed PMID: 2443114.
  187. Varma R, Spaeth GL, Hanau C, Steinmann WC, Feldman RM. Positional changes in the vasculature of the optic disk in glaucoma. American journal of ophthalmology. 1987;104(5):457-64. Epub 1987/11/15. PubMed PMID: 3674180.
  188. Varma R, Goldberg RE, Spaeth GL. Applications of digital image analysis: the topography of an optic disc coloboma and alterations in the retinal vessels in an arteriovenous malformation. Transactions – Pennsylvania Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology. 1987;39(1):588-91. Epub 1987/01/01. PubMed PMID: 3451394.
  189. Spaeth GL, Varma R. Assessment of the glaucomatous patient. Eye (London, England). 1987;1 ( Pt 1):29-39. Epub 1987/01/01. doi: 10.1038/eye.1987.4. PubMed PMID: 3549375.
  190. Feldman RM, Steinmann WC, Spaeth GL, Varma R. Ascorbic acid in the treatment of glaucoma. Glaucoma. 1987;9:181-92.
  191. Feldman RM, Steinmann WC, Spaeth GL, Varma R. The effects of altered daily fluid intake on intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. Glaucoma. 1987;9:118-21.
  192. Feldman RM, Katz LJ, Spaeth GL, Gross RL, Varma R. Ocular palpation in pseudophakia. American journal of ophthalmology. 1987;104(3):307. Epub 1987/09/15. PubMed PMID: 3631192.
  193. Feldman RM, Gross RL, Wilson RP, Spaeth GL, Varma R, Eagle RC. Encapsulated filtering blebs. Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill : 1960). 1987;105(11):1589. Epub 1987/11/01. PubMed PMID: 3675293.