Ishihara color plate 8/8 OU, subjective brightness 100% OU, no red desaturation
Hertel exophthalmometer: 14>121<15
Dilated fundus exam normal OU
Thyroid eye disease
Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome
IgG4 related disease
Adenoid cystic carcinoma
CBC with mild neutrophil predominant leukocytosis
Quantiferon Gold, RPR/FTA-ABS, HIV negative
CRP elevated, ESR WNL
ACE WNL, lysozyme WNL
Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome/dacryoadenitis
Management of our Patient
IV Solumedrol once a day with improvement in symptoms and signs
Switched to PO prednisone
Slowly tapered over two months with no recurrence
No side effects from PO prednisone
The classic histopathologic pattern consists of a paucicellular infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes.
The pathogenesis remains elusive
Treatment – General Principles
Observation and NSAIDs may be used in mild cases but oral prednisone is the mainstay of treatment
IV steroids used with apical involvement and vision loss
Low dose radiation may be used in steroid-intolerant cases
Immunosuppressants in patients who do not fully respond to steroids, do not tolerate steroids, or cannot be weaned off of steroids
Prognosis and Future Directions
Recurrence has been described in the literature. As much as 52% of the patients treated with systemic steroids recurred in a study done by Mombaerts et al.
A 2005 ASOPRS Foundation Lecture has recommended beginning with oral prednisone at 1.0 to 1.5mg/kg/d for one to two weeks and then taper dosage to zero over six to 12 weeks.
If there is inadequate response by one to two weeks or there is recurrence during taper, a biopsy is indicated which may lead to an alternative diagnosis of neoplasm, systemic autoimmune disease, or “nonspecific” chronic inflammation that may otherwise respond to steroids-sparing immunosuppressants.
Novel treatments are being studied, including but not limited to low dose intralesional Rituximab which has been described to be effective by Savino et al, intralesional steroids, and tocilizumab, a novel IL-6R inhibitor, which has been trialed however has yet to show significant benefits.
Andrew NH, Kearney D, Sladden N, Mckelvie P, Wu A, Sun MT, McNab A, Selva D. Idiopathic Dacryoadenitis: Clinical Features, Histopathology, and Treatment Outcomes. Am J Ophthalmol 2016; 163:148-153.
Cytryn AS, Putterman AM, Schneck GL, et al. Predictability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentiation of Orbital Lymphoma from Orbital Inflammatory Syndrome. Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Vol. 13. No. 2, pp 129-134.
Dagi Glass LR, Freitag S. Orbital Inflammation: Corticosteroids First. Survey of Ophthalmology 61 (2016)670-673.
Harris GJ. Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation: A Pathogenetic Construct and Treatment Strategy. The 2005 ASOPRS foundation Lecture. Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Vol. 22. No. 2, pp 79-86.
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Luemsamran P, Rootman J, White VA, Nassiri N, Heran MKS. The Role of Biopsy in Lacrimal Gland Inflammation: A Clinicopathologic Study. Orbit 2017 1744-5108.
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Mombaerts I, Bilyk J, Rose G, McNab A, Fay A, Dolman P, Allen R, Devoto M, Harris G. Consensus on Diagnostic Criteria of Idiopathic Orbital Inflammation Using a Modified Delphi Approach. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017; 135(7):769-776.
Mombaerts I, Goldschmeding R, Schlingemann RO, et al. What is Orbital Pseudotumor? Survey of Ophthalmology. Volume 41. Number 1. Jul-Aug 1996.
Mombaerts I, Rose G, Garrity J. Orbital Inflammation: Biopsy First. Survey of Ophthalmology 61 (2016)664-669.
Mombaerts I, Schlingemann RO, Goldschmeding R, et al. Are systemic corticosteroids useful in the management of orbital pseudotumors? Ophthalmology. 1996 Mar; 103(3):521-8.
Savino G, Battendieri R, Siniscalco A, et al. Intraorbital injection of Rituximab in idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome: case reports. Rheumatol Int. 2015 Jan; 35(1):183-8.
Silpa-Archa S, Oray M, Preble JM, et al. Outcome of tocilizumab treatment in refractory ocular inflammatory diseases. Acta Ophthalmol. 2016 Sep;94(6):e400-6.
Swamy BN, McCluskey P, Nemet A, et al. Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome: Clinical features and treatment outcomes. Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91:1667-1670