DoctorsCheryl M. Craft, PhD

Cheryl M. Craft, PhD

Cheryl M. Craft, PhD

Title: Professor of Ophthalmology and Cell & Neurobiology; Founding Chair Department of Cell & Neurobiology, Keck School of Medicine of USC

Department: Ophthalmology

Clinical Specialty: Age-related Macular Degeneration, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Gene Expression

Research Topics:

Molecular Neurobiology
Gene Regulation
Genetics of Inherited Blindness
Visual Arrestins
Photoreceptor G-Protein Coupled Receptor

Biography and Education

Research Interests:

As a vision neuroscientist, Dr. Cheryl M. Craft focuses on understanding how the genes expressed in the eye and pineal gland interact with the environment. When these genes are abnormal, the defects may lead to loss of sight and deregulation of the body’s “biological clock.” Her vision research program focuses on understanding the delicate balance of the photoreceptor in health and disease, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and RP. Dr. Craft’s contributions to vision encompass the identification and deciphering of the molecular mechanisms for maintaining normal vision, including arrestins and phosducin, two essential genes that encode critical regulatory components for shutoff and desensitization in both rod and cone photoreceptor signal cascades. Dr. Craft has discovered and characterized the critical regulatory elements of the cone arrestin that are necessary and sufficient for use in targeting gene rescue to all cones to restore loss of high acuity vision. She is currently evaluating the electroretinography data involving the development of alphaB crystallin peptides with therapeutic potential in animal models of age-related macular degeneration.


  • Valdosta State University, BS, 1969
  • Eastern KY University, Teaching Certificate, 1971
  • Univ. TX. Biomedical Graduate School of San Antonio, TX, PhD, 1984
  • NIH-NEI and NIH-NICHD, Post-Doctoral NSRA Fellowship, 1984-1986 

Other WEB Profiles:



  • Research To Prevent Blindness Senior Scientific Investigator Award, Recipient, 2008
  • Distinguished Lecture, Dean McGee Eye Institute, University of Oklahoma HSC, Speaker, 2009
  • John Douglas French Alzheimer’s Foundation Founding Association, Honoree, 2009
  • Distinguished Scientist/The MUSES Woman of the Year Award, Recipient, 2009


  1. Vargas A, Kim HS, Baral E, Yu WQ, Craft CM, Lee EJ. Protective Effect of Clusterin on Rod Photoreceptor in Rat Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa. PLoS One. 2017 Aug;12(8):e0182389.
  2. Deming JD, Van Craenenbroeck K, Eom YS, Lee EJ, Craft CM. Characterization of Antibodies to Identify Cellular Expression of Dopamine Receptor 4. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;854:663-70.
  3. Shin JA, Kim HS, Vargas A, Yu WQ, Eom YS, Craft CM, Lee EJ. Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Enhances Rod Survival in the S334ter-Line3 Retinitis Pigmentosa Model. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0167102.
  4. Eandi CM, Charles Messance H, Augustin S, Dominguez E, Lavalette S, Forster V, Hu SJ, Siquieros L, Craft CM, Sahel JA, Tadayoni R, Paques M, Guillonneau X, Sennlaub F. Subretinal Mononuclear Phagocytes Induce Cone Segment Loss Via Il-1beta. Elife. Epub 2016;5.
  5. Yu WQ, Eom YS, Shin JA, Nair D, Grzywacz SX, Grzywacz NM, Craft CM, Lee EJ. Reshaping the Cone-Mosaic in a Rat Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa: Modulatory Role of Zo-1 Expression in Dl-Alpha-Aminoadipic Acid Reshaping. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0151668.
  6. Pak JS, Lee EJ, Craft CM. The Retinal Phenotype of Grk1-/- Is Compromised by a Crb1 Rd8 Mutation. Mol Vis. 2015;21:1281-94.
  7. Deming JD, Pak JS, Shin JA, Brown BM, Kim MK, Aung MH, Lee EJ, Pardue MT, Craft CM. Arrestin 1 and Cone Arrestin 4 Have Unique Roles in Visual Function in an All-Cone Mouse Retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Dec;56(13):7618-28.
  8. Shin JA, Eom YS, Yu WQ, Grzywacz NM, Craft CM, Lee EJ. TIMP-1 affects the spatial distribution of dendritic processes of second-order neurons in a rat model of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Experimental eye research. 2015;140:41-52. Epub 2015/08/19. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2015.08.005. PubMed PMID: 26277580.
  9. Ji Y, Yu WQ, Eom YS, Bruce F, Craft CM, Grzywacz NM, et al. The effect of TIMP-1 on the cone mosaic in the retina of the rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2015;56(1):352-64. Epub 2014/12/18. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15398. PubMed PMID: 25515575; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4294290.
  10. Deming JD, Shin JA, Lim K, Lee EJ, Van Craenenbroeck K, Craft CM. Dopamine receptor D4 internalization requires a beta-arrestin and a visual arrestin. Cellular signalling. 2015;27(10):2002-13. Epub 2015/07/15. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.06.008. PubMed PMID: 26169958.
  11. Deming JD, Pak JS, Brown BM, Kim MK, Aung MH, Eom YS, et al. Visual Cone Arrestin 4 Contributes to Visual Function and Cone Health. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2015;56(9):5407-16. Epub 2015/08/19. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-16647. PubMed PMID: 26284544; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4544185.
  12. Berkowitz BA, Murphy GG, Craft CM, Surmeier DJ, Roberts R. Genetic dissection of horizontal cell inhibitory signaling in mice in complete darkness in vivo. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2015;56(5):3132-9. Epub 2015/05/30. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-16581. PubMed PMID: 26024096; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4451614.
  13. Berkowitz BA, Gorgis J, Patel A, Baameur F, Gurevich VV, Craft CM, et al. Development of an MRI biomarker sensitive to tetrameric visual arrestin 1 and its reduction via light-evoked translocation in vivo. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 2015;29(2):554-64. Epub 2014/10/30. doi: 10.1096/fj.14-254953. PubMed PMID: 25351983; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4314227.
  14. Craft CM, Huang J, Possin DE, Hendrickson A. Primate short-wavelength cones share molecular markers with rods. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2014;801:49-56. Epub 2014/03/26. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3209-8_7. PubMed PMID: 24664680; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4515355.
  15. Craft CM, Deming JD. Cone arrestin: deciphering the structure and functions of arrestin 4 in vision. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. 2014;219:117-31. Epub 2013/12/03. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-41199-1_6. PubMed PMID: 24292827.
  16. Craft CM. Targeting endostatin to potentially prevent retinal neovascularization using a hypoxia-responsive Muller glia cell-specific gene therapy. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2014;55(12):8054. Epub 2014/12/17. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15996. PubMed PMID: 25504477.
  17. Manfredi A, Marrocco E, Puppo A, Cesi G, Sommella A, Della Corte M, et al. Combined rod and cone transduction by adeno-associated virus 2/8. Human gene therapy. 2013;24(12):982-92. Epub 2013/09/27. doi: 10.1089/hum.2013.154. PubMed PMID: 24067103; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3868409.
  18. Yetemian RM, Craft CM. Retinal neovascular disorders: mouse models for drug development studies. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2012;723:253-9. Epub 2011/12/21. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0631-0_33. PubMed PMID: 22183340.
  19. Rebrik TI, Botchkina I, Arshavsky VY, Craft CM, Korenbrot JI. CNG-modulin: a novel Ca-dependent modulator of ligand sensitivity in cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated ion channels. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2012;32(9):3142-53. Epub 2012/03/02. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.5518-11.2012. PubMed PMID: 22378887; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3296131.
  20. Pan Y, Gerasimov MR, Kvist T, Wellendorph P, Madsen KK, Pera E, et al. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Journal of medicinal chemistry. 2012;55(1):357-66. Epub 2011/12/02. doi: 10.1021/jm201231w. PubMed PMID: 22128851; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3257419.
  21. Huang SP, Craft CM. Potential cellular functions of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor in the photoreceptor. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2012;723:791-7. Epub 2011/12/21. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0631-0_101. PubMed PMID: 22183408.
  22. Yu J, Lei K, Zhou M, Craft CM, Xu G, Xu T, et al. KASH protein Syne-2/Nesprin-2 and SUN proteins SUN1/2 mediate nuclear migration during mammalian retinal development. Human molecular genetics. 2011;20(6):1061-73. Epub 2010/12/24. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddq549. PubMed PMID: 21177258; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3043658.
  23. Yetemian RM, Craft CM. Characterization of the pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 knockout mouse retina. Neurochemical research. 2011;36(4):636-44. Epub 2011/01/05. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0334-9. PubMed PMID: 21203837; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3108503.
  24. Wisard J, Faulkner A, Chrenek MA, Waxweiler T, Waxweiler W, Donmoyer C, et al. Exaggerated eye growth in IRBP-deficient mice in early development. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2011;52(8):5804-11. Epub 2011/06/07. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-7129. PubMed PMID: 21642628; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3176041.
  25. Huang L, Szymanska K, Jensen VL, Janecke AR, Innes AM, Davis EE, et al. TMEM237 is mutated in individuals with a Joubert syndrome related disorder and expands the role of the TMEM family at the ciliary transition zone. American journal of human genetics. 2011;89(6):713-30. Epub 2011/12/14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.005. PubMed PMID: 22152675; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3234373.
  26. Craft CM. Two are better than one: unraveling the functions of cone arrestin in zebrafish (Commentary on Renninger, Gesemann and Neuhauss). The European journal of neuroscience. 2011;33(4):657. Epub 2011/02/15. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07625.x. PubMed PMID: 21314847.
  27. Zuniga FI, Craft CM. Deciphering the structure and function of Als2cr4 in the mouse retina. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2010;51(9):4407-15. Epub 2010/04/09. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5251. PubMed PMID: 20375344; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2941180.
  28. Yetemian RM, Brown BM, Craft CM. Neovascularization, enhanced inflammatory response, and age-related cone dystrophy in the Nrl-/-Grk1-/- mouse retina. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2010;51(12):6196-206. Epub 2010/08/07. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5452. PubMed PMID: 20688726; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3055752.
  29. Whitcomb T, Sakurai K, Brown BM, Young JE, Sheflin L, Dlugos C, et al. Effect of g protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (Grk1) overexpression on rod photoreceptor cell viability. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2010;51(3):1728-37. Epub 2009/10/17. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4499. PubMed PMID: 19834036; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2868427.
  30. Reutter D, Schutzer SE, Craft CM, Fletcher J, Fricke FL, Holowachuk SA, et al. Planning for exercises of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) forensic capabilities. Biosecurity and bioterrorism : biodefense strategy, practice, and science. 2010;8(4):343-55. Epub 2010/12/15. doi: 10.1089/bsp.2010.0023. PubMed PMID: 21142761.
  31. Jammoul F, Degardin J, Pain D, Gondouin P, Simonutti M, Dubus E, et al. Taurine deficiency damages photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells in vigabatrin-treated neonatal rats. Molecular and cellular neurosciences. 2010;43(4):414-21. Epub 2010/02/06. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2010.01.008. PubMed PMID: 20132888; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2864319.
  32. Inoue T, Coles BL, Dorval K, Bremner R, Bessho Y, Kageyama R, et al. Maximizing functional photoreceptor differentiation from adult human retinal stem cells. Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio). 2010;28(3):489-500. Epub 2009/12/17. doi: 10.1002/stem.279. PubMed PMID: 20014120; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2933833.
  33. Huang SP, Brown BM, Craft CM. Visual Arrestin 1 acts as a modulator for N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor in the photoreceptor synapse. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2010;30(28):9381-91. Epub 2010/07/16. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.1207-10.2010. PubMed PMID: 20631167; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2920134.
  34. Brown BM, Ramirez T, Rife L, Craft CM. Visual Arrestin 1 contributes to cone photoreceptor survival and light adaptation. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2010;51(5):2372-80. Epub 2009/12/19. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4895. PubMed PMID: 20019357; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2864311.
  35. Jammoul F, Wang Q, Nabbout R, Coriat C, Duboc A, Simonutti M, et al. Taurine deficiency is a cause of vigabatrin-induced retinal phototoxicity. Annals of neurology. 2009;65(1):98-107. Epub 2009/02/06. doi: 10.1002/ana.21526. PubMed PMID: 19194884; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2665303.
  36. Wang QP, Jammoul F, Duboc A, Gong J, Simonutti M, Dubus E, et al. Treatment of epilepsy: the GABA-transaminase inhibitor, vigabatrin, induces neuronal plasticity in the mouse retina. The European journal of neuroscience. 2008;27(8):2177-87. Epub 2008/04/17. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06175.x. PubMed PMID: 18412635; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2933832.
  37. Nikonov SS, Brown BM, Davis JA, Zuniga FI, Bragin A, Pugh EN, Jr., et al. Mouse cones require an arrestin for normal inactivation of phototransduction. Neuron. 2008;59(3):462-74. Epub 2008/08/15. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.06.011. PubMed PMID: 18701071; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2610856.
  38. Chan S, Rubin WW, Mendez A, Liu X, Song X, Hanson SM, et al. Functional comparisons of visual arrestins in rod photoreceptors of transgenic mice. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2007;48(5):1968-75. Epub 2007/04/27. doi: 10.1167/iovs.06-1287. PubMed PMID: 17460248; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2933836.
  39. Zhu X, Brown B, Rife L, Craft CM. Slowed photoresponse recovery and age-related degeneration in cones lacking G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2006;572:133-9. Epub 2007/01/26. doi: 10.1007/0-387-32442-9_20. PubMed PMID: 17249566; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2933831.
  40. Haire SE, Pang J, Boye SL, Sokal I, Craft CM, Palczewski K, et al. Light-driven cone arrestin translocation in cones of postnatal guanylate cyclase-1 knockout mouse retina treated with AAV-GC1. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2006;47(9):3745-53. Epub 2006/08/29. doi: 10.1167/iovs.06-0086. PubMed PMID: 16936082; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1761699.
  41. Bobu C, Craft CM, Masson-Pevet M, Hicks D. Photoreceptor organization and rhythmic phagocytosis in the nile rat Arvicanthis ansorgei: a novel diurnal rodent model for the study of cone pathophysiology. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2006;47(7):3109-18. Epub 2006/06/27. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-1397. PubMed PMID: 16799057; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2933834.
  42. Zhu X, Wu K, Rife L, Cawley NX, Brown B, Adams T, et al. Carboxypeptidase E is required for normal synaptic transmission from photoreceptors to the inner retina. Journal of neurochemistry. 2005;95(5):1351-62. Epub 2005/10/13. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03460.x. PubMed PMID: 16219026.
  43. Nikonov SS, Daniele LL, Zhu X, Craft CM, Swaroop A, Pugh EN, Jr. Photoreceptors of Nrl -/- mice coexpress functional S- and M-cone opsins having distinct inactivation mechanisms. The Journal of general physiology. 2005;125(3):287-304. Epub 2005/03/02. doi: 10.1085/jgp.200409208. PubMed PMID: 15738050; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2234018.
  44. Zhang J, Gray J, Wu L, Leone G, Rowan S, Cepko CL, et al. Rb regulates proliferation and rod photoreceptor development in the mouse retina. Nature genetics. 2004;36(4):351-60. Epub 2004/03/03. doi: 10.1038/ng1318. PubMed PMID: 14991054.
  45. Vernier PT, Thu MMS, Marcu L, Craft CM, Gundersen MA. Nanosecond electroperturbation-mammalian cell sensitivity and bacterial spore resistance. Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on. 2004;32(4):1620-5. doi: 10.1109/TPS.2004.831754.
  46. Vernier PT, Sun Y, Marcu L, Craft CM, Gundersen MA. Nanoelectropulse-induced phosphatidylserine translocation. Biophysical journal. 2004;86(6):4040-8. Epub 2004/06/11. doi: 10.1529/biophysj.103.037945. PubMed PMID: 15189899; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1304304.
  47. Vernier PT, Sun Y, Marcu L, Craft CM, Gundersen MA. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields perturb membrane phospholipids in T lymphoblasts. FEBS letters. 2004;572(1-3):103-8. Epub 2004/08/12. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2004.07.021. PubMed PMID: 15304332.
  48. Pickrell SW, Zhu X, Wang X, Craft CM. Deciphering the contribution of known cis-elements in the mouse cone arrestin gene to its cone-specific expression. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2004;45(11):3877-84. Epub 2004/10/27. doi: 10.1167/iovs.04-0663. PubMed PMID: 15505032.
  49. Gonzalez JA, Craft CM, Knight TT, Messerschmidt WH. Superimposed spontaneous esophageal perforation in congenital esophageal stenosis. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2004;77(3):1098-100. Epub 2004/03/03. doi: 10.1016/s0003-4975(03)00890-7. PubMed PMID: 14992945.
  50. Albini TA, Rao NA, Li A, Craft CM, Fujii GY, De Juan E, Jr. Limited macular translocation: a clinicopathologic case report. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(6):1209-14. Epub 2004/06/05. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.10.021. PubMed PMID: 15177973.
  51. Akimoto M, Filippova E, Gage PJ, Zhu X, Craft CM, Swaroop A. Transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase specifically in M- or S-cone photoreceptors. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2004;45(1):42-7. Epub 2003/12/24. PubMed PMID: 14691152.
  52. Zhu X, Brown B, Li A, Mears AJ, Swaroop A, Craft CM. GRK1-dependent phosphorylation of S and M opsins and their binding to cone arrestin during cone phototransduction in the mouse retina. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2003;23(14):6152-60. Epub 2003/07/11. PubMed PMID: 12853434.
  53. Zhang H, Huang W, Zhang H, Zhu X, Craft CM, Baehr W, et al. Light-dependent redistribution of visual arrestins and transducin subunits in mice with defective phototransduction. Molecular vision. 2003;9:231-7. Epub 2003/06/13. PubMed PMID: 12802257.
  54. Vernier PT, Sun Y, Marcu L, Salemi S, Craft CM, Gundersen MA. Calcium bursts induced by nanosecond electric pulses. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2003;310(2):286-95. Epub 2003/10/03. PubMed PMID: 14521908.
  55. Vernier PT, Aimin L, Marcu L, Craft CM, Gundersen MA. Ultrashort pulsed electric fields induce membrane phospholipid translocation and caspase activation: differential sensitivities of Jurkat T lymphoblasts and rat glioma C6 cells. Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on. 2003;10(5):795-809. doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2003.1237329.
  56. Li A, Zhu X, Brown B, Craft CM. Gene expression networks underlying retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human retinoblastoma cells. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2003;44(3):996-1007. Epub 2003/02/26. PubMed PMID: 12601020.
  57. Li A, Zhu X, Brown B, Craft CM. Melatonin enhances retinoic acid induction of cone arrestin gene expression in retinoblastoma cells. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2003;533:361-8. Epub 2004/06/08. PubMed PMID: 15180286.
  58. Behrend M, Kuthi A, Xianyue G, Vernier PT, Marcu L, Craft CM, et al. Pulse generators for pulsed electric field exposure of biological cells and tissues. Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on. 2003;10(5):820-5. doi: 10.1109/TDEI.2003.1237331.
  59. Zhu X, Ma B, Babu S, Murage J, Knox BE, Craft CM. Mouse cone arrestin gene characterization: promoter targets expression to cone photoreceptors. FEBS letters. 2002;524(1-3):116-22. Epub 2002/07/24. PubMed PMID: 12135752.
  60. Zhu X, Li A, Brown B, Weiss ER, Osawa S, Craft CM. Mouse cone arrestin expression pattern: light induced translocation in cone photoreceptors. Molecular vision. 2002;8:462-71. Epub 2002/12/18. PubMed PMID: 12486395.
  61. Liu X, Sarthy VP, Craft CM, Honda Y, Ide C. Developmental expression of beta-catenin in mouse retina. Anatomical science international. 2002;77(3):182-8. Epub 2002/11/09. doi: 10.1046/j.0022-7722.2002.00026.x. PubMed PMID: 12422411.
  62. Li A, Zhu X, Craft CM. Retinoic acid upregulates cone arrestin expression in retinoblastoma cells through a Cis element in the distal promoter region. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2002;43(5):1375-83. Epub 2002/05/01. PubMed PMID: 11980849.
  63. Brown BM, Carlson BL, Zhu X, Lolley RN, Craft CM. Light-driven translocation of the protein phosphatase 2A complex regulates light/dark dephosphorylation of phosducin and rhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2002;41(46):13526-38. Epub 2002/11/13. PubMed PMID: 12427013.
  64. Akey DT, Zhu X, Dyer M, Li A, Sorensen A, Blackshaw S, et al. The inherited blindness associated protein AIPL1 interacts with the cell cycle regulator protein NUB1. Human molecular genetics. 2002;11(22):2723-33. Epub 2002/10/11. PubMed PMID: 12374762; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2585502.
  65. Weiss ER, Ducceschi MH, Horner TJ, Li A, Craft CM, Osawa S. Species-specific differences in expression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 7 and GRK1 in mammalian cone photoreceptor cells: implications for cone cell phototransduction. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001;21(23):9175-84. Epub 2001/11/22. PubMed PMID: 11717351.
  66. Zhu X, Craft CM. Modulation of CRX transactivation activity by phosducin isoforms. Molecular and cellular biology. 2000;20(14):5216-26. Epub 2000/06/24. PubMed PMID: 10866677; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc85970.
  67. Zhu X, Craft CM. The carboxyl terminal domain of phosducin functions as a transcriptional activator. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2000;270(2):504-9. Epub 2001/02/07. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2000.2414. PubMed PMID: 10753654.
  68. Craft CM, Zhan-Poe X. Identification of specific histidine residues and the carboxyl terminus are essential for serotonin N-acetyltransferase enzymatic activity. Brain research Molecular brain research. 2000;75(2):198-207. Epub 2000/02/25. PubMed PMID: 10686340.
  69. Zhan-Poe X, Craft CM. Biochemical characterization of recombinant serotonin N-acetyltransferase. Journal of pineal research. 1999;27(1):49-58. Epub 1999/08/18. PubMed PMID: 10451024.
  70. Ishio S, Yamada H, Craft CM, Moriyama Y. Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase is another target for L-glutamate-evoked inhibition of melatonin synthesis in rat pinealocytes. Brain research. 1999;850(1-2):73-8. Epub 2000/01/12. PubMed PMID: 10629750.
  71. Craft CM, Murage J, Brown B, Zhan-Poe X. Bovine arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity correlated with mRNA expression in pineal and retina. Brain research Molecular brain research. 1999;65(1):44-51. Epub 1999/02/26. PubMed PMID: 10036306.
  72. Bobola N, Briata P, Ilengo C, Rosatto N, Craft C, Corte G, et al. OTX2 homeodomain protein binds a DNA element necessary for interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene expression. Mechanisms of development. 1999;82(1-2):165-9. Epub 1999/06/04. PubMed PMID: 10354480.
  73. Zhu X, Craft CM. Interaction of phosducin and phosducin isoforms with a 26S proteasomal subunit, SUG1. Molecular vision. 1998;4:13. Epub 1998/08/14. PubMed PMID: 9701609.
  74. Sher ES, Xu XM, Adams PM, Craft CM, Stein SA. The effects of thyroid hormone level and action in developing brain: are these targets for the actions of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins? Toxicology and industrial health. 1998;14(1-2):121-58. Epub 1998/02/14. PubMed PMID: 9460173.
  75. <strong>Craft CM, Xu J, Slepak VZ, Zhan-Poe X, Zhu X, Brown B, et al. PhLPs and PhLOPs in the phosducin family of G beta gamma binding proteins. Biochemistry. 1998;37(45):15758-72. Epub 1998/12/08. doi: 10.1021/bi980921a. PubMed PMID: 9843381.
  76. Whitmore DH, Craft CM. Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene variation reveals different largemouth bass genealogies. Journal of Fish Biology. 1996;48(4):695-705. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb01465.x.
  77. Gauer F, Craft CM. Circadian regulation of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase mRNA levels in rat pineal and retina. Brain research. 1996;737(1-2):99-109. Epub 1996/10/21. PubMed PMID: 8930356.
  78. Craft CM, Nelson EB. Microbial Properties of Composts That Suppress Damping-Off and Root Rot of Creeping Bentgrass Caused by Pythium graminicola. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1996;62(5):1550-7. Epub 1996/05/01. PubMed PMID: 16535307; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1388845.
  79. Gauer F, Kedzierski W, Craft CM. Identification of circadian gene expression in the rat pineal gland and retina by mRNA differential display. Neuroscience letters. 1995;187(1):69-73. Epub 1995/02/24. PubMed PMID: 7617306.
  80. Craft CM, Whitmore DH. The arrestin superfamily: cone arrestins are a fourth family. FEBS letters. 1995;362(2):247-55. Epub 1995/04/03. PubMed PMID: 7720881.
  81. Carcamo B, Hurwitz MY, Craft CM, Hurwitz RL. The mammalian pineal expresses the cone but not the rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. Journal of neurochemistry. 1995;65(3):1085-92. Epub 1995/09/01. PubMed PMID: 7643086.
  82. Whitmore DH, Thai TH, Craft CM. The largemouth bass cytochrome b gene. Journal of Fish Biology. 1994;44(4):637-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1994.tb01240.x.
  83. Simonneaux V, Ouichou A, Craft C, Pevet P. Presynaptic and postsynaptic effects of neuropeptide Y in the rat pineal gland. Journal of neurochemistry. 1994;62(6):2464-71. Epub 1994/06/01. PubMed PMID: 8189249.
  84. Lolley RN, Rong H, Craft CM. Linkage of photoreceptor degeneration by apoptosis with inherited defect in phototransduction. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 1994;35(2):358-62. Epub 1994/02/01. PubMed PMID: 8112981.
  85. Kamibayashi C, Estes R, Lickteig RL, Yang SI, Craft CM. Functional effect of the Ba and Bb subunits, a unique cardiac regulatory protein, and SV40 small tumor antigen on recombinant protein phosphatase 2A. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1994;269:20139-48.
  86. Craft CM, Whitmore DH, Wiechmann AF. Cone arrestin identified by targeting expression of a functional family. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1994;269(6):4613-9. Epub 1994/02/11. PubMed PMID: 8308033.
  87. Yang YS, Hanke JH, Carayannopoulos L, Craft CM, Capra JD, Tucker PW. NonO, a non-POU-domain-containing, octamer-binding protein, is the mammalian homolog of Drosophila nonAdiss. Molecular and cellular biology. 1993;13(9):5593-603. Epub 1993/09/01. PubMed PMID: 8355702; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc360282.
  88. Wiechmann AF, Craft CM. Localization of mRNA encoding the indolamine synthesizing enzyme, hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, in chicken pineal gland and retina by in situ hybridization. Neuroscience letters. 1993;150(2):207-11. Epub 1993/02/19. PubMed PMID: 8469423.
  89. Suber ML, Pittler SJ, Qin N, Wright GC, Holcombe V, Lee RH, et al. Irish setter dogs affected with rod/cone dysplasia contain a nonsense mutation in the rod cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1993;90(9):3968-72. Epub 1993/05/01. PubMed PMID: 8387203; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc46427.
  90. Sparkes RS, Lee RH, Shinohara T, Craft CM, Kojis T, Klisak I, et al. Assignment of the phosducin (PDC) gene to human chromosome 1q25-1q32.1 by somatic cell hybridization and in situ hybridization. Genomics. 1993;18(2):426-8. Epub 1993/11/01. doi: 10.1006/geno.1993.1490. PubMed PMID: 8288249.
  91. Lovenberg TW, Erlander MG, Baron BM, Racke M, Slone AL, Siegel BW, et al. Molecular cloning and functional expression of 5-HT1E-like rat and human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1993;90(6):2184-8. Epub 1993/03/15. PubMed PMID: 8384716; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc46050.
  92. Groshan KR, Norton JC, Craft CM, Travis GH. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA for mouse retinal phosducin. Experimental eye research. 1993;57(2):253-5. Epub 1993/08/01. doi: 10.1006/exer.1993.1122. PubMed PMID: 8405193.
  93. Whitmore DH, Thai TH, Craft CM. Gene Amplification Permits Minimally Invasive Analysis of Fish Mitochondrial DNA. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 1992;121(2):170-7. doi: 10.1577/1548-8659(1992)121<0170:GAPMIA>2.3.CO;2.
  94. Lolley RN, Craft CM, Lee RH. Photoreceptors of the retina and pinealocytes of the pineal gland share common components of signal transduction. Neurochemical research. 1992;17(1):81-9. Epub 1992/01/01. PubMed PMID: 1538828.
  95. Dua HS, Reyes PF, Barrett JA, Abrams MS, Schwarting R, Craft CM, et al. Identification of an S-antigen-like molecule in human choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid. Eye (London, England). 1992;6 ( Pt 6):594-8. Epub 1992/01/01. doi: 10.1038/eye.1992.128. PubMed PMID: 1289136.
  96. Schuback D, Kramer P, Ozelius L, Holmgren G, Forsgren L, Kyllerman M, et al. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene excluded in four subtypes of hereditary dystonia. Human genetics. 1991;87(3):311-6. Epub 1991/07/01. PubMed PMID: 1677923.
  97. Craft CM, Lolley RN, Seldin MF, Lee RH. Rat pineal gland phosducin: cDNA isolation, nucleotide sequence, and chromosomal assignment in the mouse. Genomics. 1991;10(2):400-9. Epub 1991/06/01. PubMed PMID: 2071146.
  98. Schuback DE, Ozelius L, Hu G, Craft CM, Raese J, Breakefield XO, et al. RFLP for human DBH (dopamine beta-hydroxylase). Nucleic acids research. 1990;18(2):387. Epub 1990/01/25. PubMed PMID: 1970168; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc330306.
  99. Lee RH, Fowler A, McGinnis JF, Lolley RN, Craft CM. Amino acid and cDNA sequence of bovine phosducin, a soluble phosphoprotein from photoreceptor cells. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1990;265(26):15867-73. Epub 1990/09/15. PubMed PMID: 2203790.
  100. Craft CM, Whitmore DH, Donoso LA. Differential expression of mRNA and protein encoding retinal and pineal S-antigen during the light/dark cycle. Journal of neurochemistry. 1990;55(5):1461-73. Epub 1990/11/01. PubMed PMID: 2213004.
  101. Shinohara T, Donoso L, Wistow G, Dietzschold B, Craft C, Tao R. The structure of bovine retinal S-antigen: sequence analysis and identification of monoclonal antibody epitopes and uveitogenic site. Japanese journal of ophthalmology. 1987;31(2):197-206. Epub 1987/01/01. PubMed PMID: 2444731.
  102. Shinohara T, Dietzschold B, Craft CM, Wistow G, Early JJ, Donoso LA, et al. Primary and secondary structure of bovine retinal S antigen (48-kDa protein). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1987;84(20):6975-9. Epub 1987/10/01. PubMed PMID: 3478675; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc299211.
  103. Carper D, Nishimura C, Shinohara T, Dietzchold B, Wistow G, Craft C, et al. Aldose reductase and p-crystallin belong to the same protein superfamily as aldehyde reductase. FEBS letters. 1987;220(1):209-13. Epub 1987/08/10. PubMed PMID: 3111886.
  104. Wistow GJ, Katial A, Craft C, Shinohara T. Sequence analysis of bovine retinal S-antigen. Relationships with alpha-transducin and G-proteins. FEBS letters. 1986;196(1):23-8. Epub 1986/02/03. PubMed PMID: 3080338.
  105. Stanton TL, Craft CM, Reiter RJ. Pineal melatonin: circadian rhythm and variations during the hibernation cycle in the ground squirrel, Spermophilus lateralis. The Journal of experimental zoology. 1986;239(2):247-54. Epub 1986/08/01. doi: 10.1002/jez.1402390212. PubMed PMID: 3746234.
  106. Donoso LA, Merryman CF, Shinohara T, Dietzschold B, Wistow G, Craft C, et al. S-antigen: identification of the MAbA9-C6 monoclonal antibody binding site and the uveitopathogenic sites. Current eye research. 1986;5(12):995-1004. Epub 1986/12/01. PubMed PMID: 3492336.
  107. Champney TH, Holtorf AP, Craft CM, Reiter RJ. Hormonal modulation of pineal melatonin synthesis in rats and Syrian hamsters: effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin injections. Comparative biochemistry and physiology A, Comparative physiology. 1986;83(2):391-5. Epub 1986/01/01. PubMed PMID: 2420523.
  108. Craft CM, Morgan WW, Jones DJ, Reiter RJ. Hamster and rat pineal gland beta-adrenoceptor characterization with iodocyanopindolol and the effect of decreased catecholamine synthesis on the receptor. Journal of pineal research. 1985;2(1):51-66. Epub 1985/01/01. PubMed PMID: 3007726.
  109. Champney TH, Craft CM, Webb SM, Reiter RJ. Hormonal modulation of pineal melatonin synthesis in rats and Syrian hamsters: effects of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid implants. Journal of neural transmission. 1985;64(1):67-79. Epub 1985/01/01. PubMed PMID: 2415676.
  110. Stanton TL, Craft CM, Reiter RJ. Decreases in pineal melatonin content during the hibernation bout in the golden-mantled group squirrel, Spermophilus lateralis. Life sciences. 1984;35(14):1461-7. Epub 1984/10/01. PubMed PMID: 6482666.
  111. Craft CM, Reiter RJ. Derivatives of [3H]serotonin in organ cultures of hamster pineal gland. Life sciences. 1984;34(18):1775-82. Epub 1984/04/30. PubMed PMID: 6203004.
  112. Craft CM, Morgan WW, Reiter RJ. 24-Hour changes in catecholamine synthesis in rat and hamster pineal glands. Neuroendocrinology. 1984;38(3):193-8. Epub 1984/03/01. PubMed PMID: 6144062.
  113. Vaughan MK, Richardson BA, Craft CM, Powanda MC, Reiter RJ. Interaction of ageing, photoperiod and melatonin on plasma thyroid hormones and cholesterol levels in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Gerontology. 1982;28(6):345-53. Epub 1982/11/01. PubMed PMID: 7160621.
  114. Reiter RJ, Vriend J, Brainard GC, Matthews SA, Craft CM. Reduced pineal and plasma melatonin levels and gonadal atrophy in old hamsters kept under winter photo-period. Experimental Aging Research 1982;8(1):27-30.
  115. Reiter RJ, Craft CM, Johnson JE, Jr., King TS, Richardson BA, Vaughan GM, et al. Age-associated reduction in nocturnal pineal melatonin levels in female rats. Endocrinology. 1981;109(4):1295-7. Epub 1981/10/01. doi: 10.1210/endo-109-4-1295. PubMed PMID: 7285872.
  116. Craft-Cormney C, Hansen JT. Early ultrastructural changes in the myocardium following thyroxine-induced hypertrophy. Virchows Archiv B, Cell pathology including molecular pathology. 1980;33(3):267-73. Epub 1980/01/01. PubMed PMID: 6110274.