DoctorsSarah F. Hamm-Alvarez, PhD

Sarah F. Hamm-Alvarez, PhD

Sarah F. Hamm-Alvarez, PhD

Title: Professor of Ophthalmology and of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Vice Chair of Basic Research, Department of Ophthalmology; Associate Dean of Basic and Translational Research, Keck School of Medicine of USC

Clinical Specialty: Sjögren’s Syndrome, Dry Eye Disorders, Biomarkers of Ocular Surface Disease

Research Topics:

Cell structure and organization
Membrane trafficking
Epithelial cells
Targeted Drug Delivery
Extracellular Matrix

Biography and Education

Research Interests:

In partnership with the USC Roski Eye Institute, Sarah F. Hamm-Alvarez, PhD, seeks to advance our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for development of aqueous tear deficiency, one of the primary causes of dry eye disorder.  She also works to explore new drug discovery and delivery modalities and optimization of new therapies for treatment of eye diseases. Dr. Hamm-Alvarez’s research program focuses on characterization of membrane trafficking events facilitating regulated secretion of proteins through transcytosis and exocytosis in epithelial cells, as well as endocytosis of macromolecules and ligands. A particular area of emphasis is the elucidation of processes that mediate the sorting, packaging and release of tear proteins by the acinar cells of the lacrimal gland. A significant emphasis of Dr. Hamm-Alvarez’s work is the discovery of the pathological changes in membrane trafficking mechanisms in lacrimal gland acinar cells that may contribute to the autoimmune dacryadenitis characteristic of Sjögren’s syndrome. This work, ranging from fundamental cell biology, to animal, and to clinical studies, has led to the discovery of putative tear biomarkers for identification of Sjögren’s syndrome patients with early stage disease.

Dr. Hamm-Alvarez’s group is also working on novel drug delivery strategies for targeting of immunomodulatory agents to lacrimal gland and ocular surface tissues utilizing protein-based targeting of nano particles. Finally, her work on pathological changes in exocrine tissue in Sjögren’s syndrome has identified potential additional targets for drug therapy, which have opened up the potential to explore the efficacy of a variety of new therapeutic agents for treatment of autoimmune exocrinopathy. Dr. Hamm-Alvarez’s research program is associated with extensive usage of high resolution molecular imaging techniques including confocal and multiphoton microscopy, intravital microscopy, electron microscopy as well as histology and other biochemical techniques (membrane fractionation, molecular biology) for studying intracellular trafficking processes.


  • Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, Chemistry, BA, 1986
  • Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, Biochemistry, PhD, 1990
  • Duke University, Durham, North Carolina,  Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, 1993

Other WEB Profiles:



  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Muscular Dystrophy Association, 1991-1993
  • Initial Investigatorship, American Heart Association, 1994-1996
  • Greater Los Angeles Affiliate, 2000-2004
  • John A. Biles Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USC School of Pharmacy, 2003
  • Doctor of Philosophy, Honoris Causa, University of Kalmar, Sweden, 2004
  • Gavin S. Herbert Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USC School of Pharmacy, 2004-2015
  • Higher Education Resource Services (HERS) USC representative, Wellesley MA, 2010-2011


  1. Lee C, Guo H, Klinngam W, Janga SR, Yarber F, Peddi S, Edman MC, Tiwari N, Liu S, Louie SG, Hamm-Alvarez SF, MacKay JA. Berunda Polypeptides: Biheaded Rapamycin Carriers for Subcutaneous Treatment of Autoimmune Dry Eye Disease. Mol Pharm. 2019 May 30. doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00263. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Janga SR, Hamm-Alvarez SF. PP2A: A Novel Target to Prevent Cathepsin S-Mediated Damage in Smoking-Induced COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Feb 20. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201901-0219ED. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Guo H, Lee C, Shah M, Janga SR, Edman MC, Klinngam W, Hamm-Alvarez SF, MacKay JA. A Novel Elastin-like Polypeptide Drug Carrier for Cyclosporine A Improves Tear Flow in a Mouse Model of Sjögren’s Syndrome. J Control Release. 2018 Dec 28;292:183-195.
  4. Klinngam W, Fu R, Janga SR, Edman MC, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Cathepsin S Alters the Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and MMP-9, Partially through Protease-Activated Receptor-2, in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Nov 9;19(11).
  5. Ju Y, Janga SR, Klinngam W, MacKay JA, Hawley D, Zoukhri D, Edman MC, Hamm-Alvarez SF. NOD and NOR Mice Exhibit Comparable Development of Lacrimal Gland Secretory Dysfunction but NOD Mice Have More Severe Autoimmune Dacryoadenitis. Exp Eye Res. 2018 Nov;176:243-251.
  6. Janga SR, Shah M, Ju Y, Meng Z, Edman MC, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Longitudinal Analysis of Tear Cathepsin S Activity Levels in Male Non-Obese Diabetic Mice Suggests its Potential as an Early Stage Biomarker of Sjögren’s Syndrome. Biomarkers. 2018 Sep 12:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]
  7. Edman MC, Janga SR, Meng Z, Bechtold M, Chen AF, Kim C, Naman L, Sarma A, Teekappanavar N, Kim AY, Madrigal S, Singh S, Ortiz E, Christianakis S, Arkfeld DG, Mack WJ, Heur M, Stohl W, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Increased Cathepsin S Activity Associated with Decreased Protease Inhibitory Capacity Contributes to Altered Tear Proteins in Sjögren’s Syndrome Patients. Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 23;8(1):11044.
  8. Hawley D, Tang X, Zyrianova T, Shah M, Janga S, Letourneau A, Schicht M, Paulsen F, Hamm-Alvarez S, Makarenkova HP, Zoukhri D. Myoepithelial Cell-Driven Acini Contraction in Response to Oxytocin Receptor Stimulation is Impaired in Lacrimal Glands of Sjögren’s Syndrome Animal Models. Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 2;8(1):9919.
  9. Aluri HS, Samizadeh M, Edman MC, Hawley DR, Armaos HL, Janga SR, Meng Z, Sendra VG, Hamrah P, Kublin CL, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Zoukhri D. Delivery of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Tear Production in a Mouse Model of Sjogren’s Syndrome. Stem Cells Int. 2017 Mar;2017:3134543.
  10. Shah M, Edman MC, Reddy Janga S, Yarber F, Meng Z, Klinngam W, Bushman J, Ma T, Liu S, Louie S, Mehta A, Ding C, MacKay JA, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Rapamycin Eye Drops Suppress Lacrimal Gland Inflammation in a Murine Model of Sjogren’s Syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Jan;58(1):372-85.
  11. Wang W, Jashnani A, Aluri SR, Gustafson JA, Hsueh PY, Yarber F, et al. A thermo-responsive protein treatment for dry eyes. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 2015;199:156-67. Epub 2014/12/08. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.11.016. PubMed PMID: 25481446; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4456095.
  12. Hsueh PY, Edman MC, Sun G, Shi P, Xu S, Lin YA, et al. Tear-mediated delivery of nanoparticles through transcytosis of the lacrimal gland. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 2015;208:2-13. Epub 2014/12/20. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.12.017. PubMed PMID: 25523518; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4456098.
  13. Wang W, Despanie J, Shi P, Edman-Woolcott MC, Lin YA, Cui H, et al. Lacritin-mediated regeneration of the corneal epithelia by protein polymer nanoparticles. Journal of materials chemistry B, Materials for biology and medicine. 2014;2(46):8131-41. Epub 2014/12/23. doi: 10.1039/c4tb00979g. PubMed PMID: 25530855; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4270104.
  14. Pastuszka MK, Okamoto CT, Hamm-Alvarez SF, MacKay JA. Flipping the Switch on Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis using Thermally Responsive Protein Microdomains. Advanced functional materials. 2014;24(34):5340-7. Epub 2014/11/25. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201400715. PubMed PMID: 25419208; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4235962.
  15. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Janga SR, Edman MC, Madrigal S, Shah M, Frousiakis SE, et al. Tear cathepsin S as a candidate biomarker for Sjogren’s syndrome. Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, NJ). 2014;66(7):1872-81. Epub 2014/03/20. doi: 10.1002/art.38633. PubMed PMID: 24644101; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4077975.
  16. Xu S, Olenyuk BZ, Okamoto CT, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Targeting receptor-mediated endocytotic pathways with nanoparticles: rationale and advances. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2013;65(1):121-38. Epub 2012/10/03. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2012.09.041. PubMed PMID: 23026636; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3565049.
  17. Xu S, Ma L, Evans E, Okamoto CT, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor traffics through two distinct apically targeted pathways in primary lacrimal gland acinar cells. Journal of cell science. 2013;126(Pt 12):2704-17. Epub 2013/04/23. doi: 10.1242/jcs.122242. PubMed PMID: 23606742; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3687702.
  18. Shah M, Edman MC, Janga SR, Shi P, Dhandhukia J, Liu S, et al. A rapamycin-binding protein polymer nanoparticle shows potent therapeutic activity in suppressing autoimmune dacryoadenitis in a mouse model of Sjogren’s syndrome. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 2013;171(3):269-79. Epub 2013/07/31. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.07.016. PubMed PMID: 23892265; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3796004.
  19. Gonzalez JM, Jr., Hamm-Alvarez S, Tan JC. Analyzing live cellularity in the human trabecular meshwork. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2013;54(2):1039-47. Epub 2012/12/20. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10479. PubMed PMID: 23249706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3565993.
  20. Fazlollahi F, Kim YH, Sipos A, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Borok Z, Kim KJ, et al. Nanoparticle translocation across mouse alveolar epithelial cell monolayers: species-specific mechanisms. Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine. 2013;9(6):786-94. Epub 2013/03/05. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2013.01.007. PubMed PMID: 23454523; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3702651.
  21. Tan JCH, Gonzalez JM, Hamm-Alvarez S, Song J. In Situ Autofluorescence Visualization of Human Trabecular Meshwork Structure. 2012;53(4):2080-8. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8141. PubMed PMID: 22410566; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3995572.
  22. Pastuszka MK, Janib SM, Weitzhandler I, Okamoto CT, Hamm-Alvarez S, Mackay JA. A tunable and reversible platform for the intracellular formation of genetically engineered protein microdomains. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13(11):3439-44. Epub 2012/10/24. doi: 10.1021/bm301090x. PubMed PMID: 23088632; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3500625.
  23. Lagor WR, Fields DW, Khetarpal SA, Kumaravel A, Lin W, Weintraub N, et al. The effects of apolipoprotein F deficiency on high density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in mice. PloS one. 2012;7(2):e31616. Epub 2012/03/01. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031616. PubMed PMID: 22363685; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3282742.
  24. Contreras J, Hsueh PY, Pei H, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Use of nucleofection to efficiently transfect primary rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells. Cytotechnology. 2012;64(2):149-56. Epub 2011/12/06. doi: 10.1007/s10616-011-9404-3. PubMed PMID: 22138892; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3279577.
  25. Chiang L, Karvar S, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Direct imaging of RAB27B-enriched secretory vesicle biogenesis in lacrimal acinar cells reveals origins on a nascent vesicle budding site. PloS one. 2012;7(2):e31789. Epub 2012/03/01. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031789. PubMed PMID: 22363735; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3282733.
  26. Xu S, Edman M, Kothawala MS, Sun G, Chiang L, Mircheff A, et al. A Rab11a-enriched subapical membrane compartment regulates a cytoskeleton-dependent transcytotic pathway in secretory epithelial cells of the lacrimal gland. Journal of cell science. 2011;124(20):3503-14. doi: 10.1242/jcs.088906. PubMed PMID: 21984810; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3196860.
  27. Sun G, Hsueh PY, Janib SM, Hamm-Alvarez S, MacKay JA. Design and cellular internalization of genetically engineered polypeptide nanoparticles displaying adenovirus knob domain. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 2011;155(2):218-26. Epub 2011/06/28. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.06.010. PubMed PMID: 21699930; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3196066.
  28. Fazlollahi F, Sipos A, Kim YH, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Borok Z, Kim KJ, et al. Translocation of PEGylated quantum dots across rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers. International journal of nanomedicine. 2011;6:2849-57. Epub 2011/12/02. doi: 10.2147/ijn.s26051. PubMed PMID: 22131830; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3224711.
  29. Fazlollahi F, Angelow S, Yacobi NR, Marchelletta R, Yu AS, Hamm-Alvarez SF, et al. Polystyrene nanoparticle trafficking across MDCK-II. Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine. 2011;7(5):588-94. Epub 2011/02/12. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2011.01.008. PubMed PMID: 21310266; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3130091.
  30. Contreras J, Elnagar AY, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Camarero JA. Cellular uptake of cyclotide MCoTI-I follows multiple endocytic pathways. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 2011;155(2):134-43. Epub 2011/09/13. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.08.030. PubMed PMID: 21906641; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3195939.
  31. Chiang L, Ngo J, Schechter JE, Karvar S, Tolmachova T, Seabra MC, et al. Rab27b regulates exocytosis of secretory vesicles in acinar epithelial cells from the lacrimal gland. American journal of physiology Cell physiology. 2011;301(2):C507-21. Epub 2011/04/29. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00355.2010. PubMed PMID: 21525430; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3154548.
  32. Yacobi NR, Malmstadt N, Fazlollahi F, DeMaio L, Marchelletta R, Hamm-Alvarez SF, et al. Mechanisms of alveolar epithelial translocation of a defined population of nanoparticles. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. 2010;42(5):604-14. Epub 2009/07/04. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2009-0138OC. PubMed PMID: 19574531; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2874446.
  33. Schenke-Layland K, Xie J, Magnusson M, Angelis E, Li X, Wu K, et al. Lymphocytic infiltration leads to degradation of lacrimal gland extracellular matrix structures in NOD mice exhibiting a Sjogren’s syndrome-like exocrinopathy. Experimental eye research. 2010;90(2):223-37. Epub 2009/10/27. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2009.10.008. PubMed PMID: 19852957; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2821966.
  34. Li X, Wu K, Edman M, Schenke-Layland K, MacVeigh-Aloni M, Janga SR, et al. Increased expression of cathepsins and obesity-induced proinflammatory cytokines in lacrimal glands of male NOD mouse. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2010;51(10):5019-29. Epub 2010/05/14. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4523. PubMed PMID: 20463324; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3066616.
  35. Kim YH, Fazlollahi F, Kennedy IM, Yacobi NR, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Borok Z, et al. Alveolar epithelial cell injury due to zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2010;182(11):1398-409. Epub 2010/07/20. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201002-0185OC. PubMed PMID: 20639441; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3029930.
  36. Contreras J, Xie J, Chen YJ, Pei H, Zhang G, Fraser CL, et al. Intracellular uptake and trafficking of difluoroboron dibenzoylmethane-polylactide nanoparticles in HeLa cells. ACS nano. 2010;4(5):2735-47. Epub 2010/04/28. doi: 10.1021/nn901385y. PubMed PMID: 20420413; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2948672.
  37. Xie J, Marchelletta RR, Thomas PB, Jacobs DT, Yarber FA, Cheney RE, et al. Transduced viral IL-10 is exocytosed from lacrimal acinar secretory vesicles in a myosin-dependent manner in response to carbachol. Experimental eye research. 2009;88(3):467-78. Epub 2008/12/06. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2008.10.023. PubMed PMID: 19056381; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2656410.
  38. Wu K, Joffre C, Li X, MacVeigh-Aloni M, Hom M, Hwang J, et al. Altered expression of genes functioning in lipid homeostasis is associated with lipid deposition in NOD mouse lacrimal gland. Experimental eye research. 2009;89(3):319-32. Epub 2009/04/07. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2009.03.020. PubMed PMID: 19345210; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2720431.
  39. Yacobi NR, Demaio L, Xie J, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Borok Z, Kim KJ, et al. Polystyrene nanoparticle trafficking across alveolar epithelium. Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine. 2008;4(2):139-45. Epub 2008/04/01. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2008.02.002. PubMed PMID: 18375191.
  40. Schenke-Layland K, Xie J, Angelis E, Starcher B, Wu K, Riemann I, et al. Increased degradation of extracellular matrix structures of lacrimal glands implicated in the pathogenesis of Sjogren’s syndrome. Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology. 2008;27(1):53-66. Epub 2007/08/11. doi: 10.1016/j.matbio.2007.07.005. PubMed PMID: 17689946; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2394184.
  41. Norouziyan F, Shen WC, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Tyrphostin A8 stimulates a novel trafficking pathway of apically endocytosed transferrin through Rab11-enriched compartments in Caco-2 cells. American journal of physiology Cell physiology. 2008;294(1):C7-21. Epub 2007/10/26. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00372.2006. PubMed PMID: 17959726.
  42. Marchelletta RR, Jacobs DT, Schechter JE, Cheney RE, Hamm-Alvarez SF. The class V myosin motor, myosin 5c, localizes to mature secretory vesicles and facilitates exocytosis in lacrimal acini. American journal of physiology Cell physiology. 2008;295(1):C13-28. Epub 2008/04/25. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00330.2007. PubMed PMID: 18434623; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2493552.
  43. Joo KI, Lei Y, Lee CL, Lo J, Xie J, Hamm-Alvarez SF, et al. Site-specific labeling of enveloped viruses with quantum dots for single virus tracking. ACS nano. 2008;2(8):1553-62. Epub 2008/12/17. doi: 10.1021/nn8002136. PubMed PMID: 19079775; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2600658.
  44. Evans E, Zhang W, Jerdeva G, Chen CY, Chen X, Hamm-Alvarez SF, et al. Direct interaction between Rab3D and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and trafficking through regulated secretory vesicles in lacrimal gland acinar cells. American journal of physiology Cell physiology. 2008;294(3):C662-74. Epub 2008/01/04. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00623.2006. PubMed PMID: 18171724; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4046641.
  45. Brockbank KG, MacLellan WR, Xie J, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Chen ZZ, Schenke-Layland K. Quantitative second harmonic generation imaging of cartilage damage. Cell and tissue banking. 2008;9(4):299-307. Epub 2008/04/24. doi: 10.1007/s10561-008-9070-7. PubMed PMID: 18431689.
  46. Wang Y, Chiu CT, Nakamura T, Walker AM, Petridou B, Trousdale MD, et al. Elevated prolactin redirects secretory vesicle traffic in rabbit lacrimal acinar cells. American journal of physiology Endocrinology and metabolism. 2007;292(4):E1122-34. Epub 2006/12/14. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00381.2006. PubMed PMID: 17164431.
  47. Wang Y, Chiu CT, Nakamura T, Walker AM, Petridou B, Trousdale MD, et al. Traffic of endogenous, transduced, and endocytosed prolactin in rabbit lacrimal acinar cells. Experimental eye research. 2007;85(6):749-61. Epub 2007/10/02. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2007.08.009. PubMed PMID: 17904551; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2190296.
  48. Schenke-Layland K, Xie J, Heydarkhan-Hagvall S, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Stock UA, Brockbank KG, et al. Optimized preservation of extracellular matrix in cardiac tissues: implications for long-term graft durability. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2007;83(5):1641-50. Epub 2007/04/28. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2006.12.005. PubMed PMID: 17462373.
  49. Xie J, Chiang L, Contreras J, Wu K, Garner JA, Medina-Kauwe L, et al. Novel fiber-dependent entry mechanism for adenovirus serotype 5 in lacrimal acini. Journal of virology. 2006;80(23):11833-51. Epub 2006/09/22. doi: 10.1128/jvi.00857-06. PubMed PMID: 16987972; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1642591.
  50. Wu K, Jerdeva GV, da Costa SR, Sou E, Schechter JE, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Molecular mechanisms of lacrimal acinar secretory vesicle exocytosis. Experimental eye research. 2006;83(1):84-96. Epub 2006/03/15. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2005.11.009. PubMed PMID: 16530759.
  51. Selvam S, Thomas PB, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Schechter JE, Stevenson D, Mircheff AK, et al. Current status of gene delivery and gene therapy in lacrimal gland using viral vectors. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2006;58(11):1243-57. Epub 2006/10/24. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2006.07.021. PubMed PMID: 17056149; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1773022.
  52. Rentsendorj A, Xie J, MacVeigh M, Agadjanian H, Bass S, Kim DH, et al. Typical and atypical trafficking pathways of Ad5 penton base recombinant protein: implications for gene transfer. Gene therapy. 2006;13(10):821-36. Epub 2006/02/17. doi: 10.1038/ PubMed PMID: 16482205.
  53. Ding C, MacVeigh M, Pidgeon M, da Costa SR, Wu K, Hamm-Alvarez SF, et al. Unique ultrastructure of exorbital lacrimal glands in male NOD and BALB/c mice. Current eye research. 2006;31(1):13-22. Epub 2006/01/20. doi: 10.1080/02713680500428613. PubMed PMID: 16421015.
  54. da Costa SR, Wu K, Veigh MM, Pidgeon M, Ding C, Schechter JE, et al. Male NOD mouse external lacrimal glands exhibit profound changes in the exocytotic pathway early in postnatal development. Experimental eye research. 2006;82(1):33-45. Epub 2005/07/12. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2005.04.019. PubMed PMID: 16005870; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1351294.
  55. Andersson SV, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Gierow JP. Integrin adhesion in regulation of lacrimal gland acinar cell secretion. Experimental eye research. 2006;83(3):543-53. Epub 2006/04/25. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2006.02.006. PubMed PMID: 16631165.
  56. Rose CM, Qian L, Hakim L, Wang Y, Jerdeva GY, Marchelletta R, et al. Accumulation of catalytically active proteases in lacrimal gland acinar cell endosomes during chronic ex vivo muscarinic receptor stimulation. Scandinavian journal of immunology. 2005;61(1):36-50. Epub 2005/01/13. doi: 10.1111/j.0300-9475.2005.01527.x. PubMed PMID: 15644121.
  57. Mircheff AK, Wang Y, Jean Mde S, Ding C, Trousdale MD, Hamm-Alvarez SF, et al. Mucosal immunity and self-tolerance in the ocular surface system. The ocular surface. 2005;3(4):182-92. Epub 2006/11/30. PubMed PMID: 17131026.
  58. Jerdeva GV, Yarber FA, Trousdale MD, Rhodes CJ, Okamoto CT, Dartt DA, et al. Dominant-negative PKC-epsilon impairs apical actin remodeling in parallel with inhibition of carbachol-stimulated secretion in rabbit lacrimal acini. American journal of physiology Cell physiology. 2005;289(4):C1052-68. Epub 2005/06/03. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00546.2004. PubMed PMID: 15930141; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1414898.
  59. Jerdeva GV, Wu K, Yarber FA, Rhodes CJ, Kalman D, Schechter JE, et al. Actin and non-muscle myosin II facilitate apical exocytosis of tear proteins in rabbit lacrimal acinar epithelial cells. Journal of cell science. 2005;118(Pt 20):4797-812. Epub 2005/10/13. doi: 10.1242/jcs.02573. PubMed PMID: 16219687; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1482462.
  60. Xie J, Qian L, Wang Y, Rose CM, Yang T, Nakamura T, et al. Novel biphasic traffic of endocytosed EGF to recycling and degradative compartments in lacrimal gland acinar cells. Journal of cellular physiology. 2004;199(1):108-25. Epub 2004/02/24. doi: 10.1002/jcp.10458. PubMed PMID: 14978740.
  61. Xie J, Qian L, Wang Y, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Mircheff AK. Role of the microtubule cytoskeleton in traffic of EGF through the lacrimal acinar cell endomembrane network. Experimental eye research. 2004;78(6):1093-106. Epub 2004/04/28. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2004.01.009. PubMed PMID: 15109916.
  62. Wang Y, Xie J, Yarber FA, Mazurek C, Trousdale MD, Medina-Kauwe LK, et al. Adenoviral capsid modulates secretory compartment organization and function in acinar epithelial cells from rabbit lacrimal gland. Gene therapy. 2004;11(12):970-81. Epub 2004/03/19. doi: 10.1038/ PubMed PMID: 15029229.
  63. Qian L, Xie J, Rose CM, Sou E, Zeng H, Hamm-Alvarez SF, et al. Altered traffic to the lysosome in an ex vivo lacrimal acinar cell model for chronic muscarinic receptor stimulation. Experimental eye research. 2004;79(5):665-75. Epub 2004/10/27. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2004.07.007. PubMed PMID: 15500825.
  64. Chu C, Okamoto CT, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Lee VH. Stable transfection of MDCK cells with epitope-tagged human PepT1. Pharmaceutical research. 2004;21(11):1970-3. Epub 2004/12/14. PubMed PMID: 15587917.
  65. Wang Y, Jerdeva G, Yarber FA, da Costa SR, Xie J, Qian L, et al. Cytoplasmic dynein participates in apically targeted stimulated secretory traffic in primary rabbit lacrimal acinar epithelial cells. Journal of cell science. 2003;116(Pt 10):2051-65. Epub 2003/04/08. doi: 10.1242/jcs.00398. PubMed PMID: 12679381.
  66. Qian L, Wang Y, Xie J, Rose CM, Yang T, Nakamura T, et al. Biochemical changes contributing to functional quiescence in lacrimal gland acinar cells after chronic ex vivo exposure to a muscarinic agonist. Scandinavian journal of immunology. 2003;58(5):550-65. Epub 2003/11/25. PubMed PMID: 14629627.
  67. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Xie J, Wang Y, Medina-Kauwe LK. Modulation of secretory functions in epithelia by adenovirus capsid proteins. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 2003;93(2):129-40. Epub 2003/11/26. PubMed PMID: 14636719.
  68. Da Costa SR, Sou E, Xie J, Yarber FA, Okamoto CT, Pidgeon M, et al. Impairing actin filament or syndapin functions promotes accumulation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the apical plasma membrane of acinar epithelial cells. Molecular biology of the cell. 2003;14(11):4397-413. Epub 2003/08/26. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E03-05-0315. PubMed PMID: 12937279; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc266760.
  69. da Costa SR, Okamoto CT, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Actin microfilaments et al.–the many components, effectors and regulators of epithelial cell endocytosis. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 2003;55(11):1359-83. Epub 2003/11/05. PubMed PMID: 14597136.
  70. Yang L, Leong PK, Chen JO, Patel N, Hamm-Alvarez SF, McDonough AA. Acute hypertension provokes internalization of proximal tubule NHE3 without inhibition of transport activity. American journal of physiology Renal physiology. 2002;282(4):F730-40. Epub 2002/03/07. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00298.2001. PubMed PMID: 11880335.
  71. Xie J, Qian L, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Mircheff AK. Epidermal growth factor traffic in lacrimal acinar cells. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2002;506(Pt A):213-7. Epub 2003/03/05. PubMed PMID: 12613910.
  72. Qian L, Yang T, Chen H, Xie J, Zeng H, Warren DW, et al. Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins in the lacrimal acinar cell endomembrane system. Experimental eye research. 2002;74(1):7-22. Epub 2002/03/07. doi: 10.1006/exer.2001.1108. PubMed PMID: 11878814.
  73. Mircheff AK, Xie J, Qian L, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Diverse perturbations may alter the lacrimal acinar cell autoantigenic spectra. DNA and cell biology. 2002;21(5-6):435-42. Epub 2002/08/09. doi: 10.1089/10445490260099728. PubMed PMID: 12167246.
  74. Mircheff AK, Qian L, Xie J, Wang Y, Hamm-Alvarez SF. M3 receptor autoimmunity: losing tolerance to a familiar protein. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2002;506(Pt A):51-8. Epub 2003/03/05. PubMed PMID: 12613888.
  75. Hamm-Alvarez SF. Focus on “EGF receptor downregulation depends on a trafficking motif in the distal tyrosine kinase domain”. American journal of physiology Cell physiology. 2002;282(3):C417-9. Epub 2002/02/08. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00550.2001. PubMed PMID: 11832326.
  76. Lindberg J, Fernandez MA, Ropp JD, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Nocodazole treatment of CV-1 cells enhances nuclear/perinuclear accumulation of lipid-DNA complexes and increases gene expression. Pharmaceutical research. 2001;18(2):246-9. Epub 2001/06/19. PubMed PMID: 11405299.
  77. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Chang A, Wang Y, Jerdeva G, Lin HH, Kim KJ, et al. Etk/Bmx activation modulates barrier function in epithelial cells. American journal of physiology Cell physiology. 2001;280(6):C1657-68. Epub 2001/05/15. PubMed PMID: 11350762.
  78. Zhang L, da Costa SR, Yarber FA, Runnegar M, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Protein phosphatase inhibitors alter cellular microtubules and reduce carbachol-dependent protein secretion in lacrimal acini. Current eye research. 2000;20(5):373-83. Epub 2000/06/16. PubMed PMID: 10855032.
  79. Wang Y, Duncan R, Ann DK, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Identification of a novel taxol-sensitive kinase activity associated with the cytoskeleton. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2000;277(3):525-30. Epub 2000/11/04. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2000.3707. PubMed PMID: 11061987.
  80. da Costa SR, Wang Y, Vilalta PM, Schonthal AH, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Changes in cytoskeletal organization in polyoma middle T antigen-transformed fibroblasts: involvement of protein phosphatase 2A and src tyrosine kinases. Cell motility and the cytoskeleton. 2000;47(4):253-68. Epub 2000/11/28. doi: 10.1002/1097-0169(200012)47:4<253::aid-cm1>;2-s. PubMed PMID: 11093247.
  81. Runnegar MT, Wei X, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Increased protein phosphorylation of cytoplasmic dynein results in impaired motor function. The Biochemical journal. 1999;342 ( Pt 1):1-6. Epub 1999/08/05. PubMed PMID: 10432292; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc1220428.
  82. Lee VH, Chu C, Mahlin ED, Basu SK, Ann DK, Bolger MB, et al. Biopharmaceutics of transmucosal peptide and protein drug administration: role of transport mechanisms with a focus on the involvement of PepT1. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. 1999;62(1-2):129-40. Epub 1999/10/16. PubMed PMID: 10518644.
  83. Hamm-Alvarez SF. Targeting endocytosis and motor proteins to enhance DNA persistence. Pharmaceutical science & technology today. 1999;2(5):190-6. Epub 1999/05/14. PubMed PMID: 10322381.
  84. Yeung AK, Basu SK, Wu SK, Chu C, Okamoto CT, Hamm-Alvarez SF, et al. Molecular identification of a role for tyrosine 167 in the function of the human intestinal proton- coupled dipeptide transporter (hPepT1). Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1998;250(1):103-7. Epub 1998/09/15. PubMed PMID: 9735340.
  85. Vilalta PM, Zhang L, Hamm-Alvarez SF. A novel taxol-induced vimentin phosphorylation and stabilization revealed by studies on stable microtubules and vimentin intermediate filaments. Journal of cell science. 1998;111 ( Pt 13):1841-52. Epub 1998/06/17. PubMed PMID: 9625747.
  86. Sonee M, Barron E, Yarber FA, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Taxol inhibits endosomal-lysosomal membrane trafficking at two distinct steps in CV-1 cells. The American journal of physiology. 1998;275(6 Pt 1):C1630-9. Epub 1998/12/09. PubMed PMID: 9843725.
  87. Mircheff AK, Gierow JP, Yang T, Zhang J, Wood RL, Azzarolo AM, et al. Sjogren’s autoimmunity: how perturbation of recognition in endomembrane traffic may provoke pathological recognition at the cell surface. Journal of molecular recognition : JMR. 1998;11(1-6):40-8. Epub 1999/03/17. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1352(199812)11:1/6<40::aid-jmr387>;2-x. PubMed PMID: 10076804.
  88. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Sheetz MP. Microtubule-dependent vesicle transport: modulation of channel and transporter activity in liver and kidney. Physiological reviews. 1998;78(4):1109-29. Epub 1998/10/28. PubMed PMID: 9790571.
  89. Hamm-Alvarez SF, da Costa SR, Sonee M, Warren DW, Mircheff AK. Kinesin activation drives the retrieval of secretory membranes following secretion in rabbit lacrimal acinar cells. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 1998;438:177-80. Epub 1998/06/23. PubMed PMID: 9634883.
  90. Hamm-Alvarez SF. Molecular motors and their role in membrane traffic. Advanced drug delivery reviews. 1998;29(3):229-42. Epub 2000/06/06. PubMed PMID: 10837592.
  91. da Costa SR, Yarber FA, Zhang L, Sonee M, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Microtubules facilitate the stimulated secretion of beta-hexosaminidase in lacrimal acinar cells. Journal of cell science. 1998;111 ( Pt 9):1267-76. Epub 1998/06/04. PubMed PMID: 9547304.
  92. Bolger MB, Haworth IS, Yeung AK, Ann D, von Grafenstein H, Hamm-Alvarez S, et al. Structure, function, and molecular modeling approaches to the study of the intestinal dipeptide transporter PepT1. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 1998;87(11):1286-91. Epub 1998/11/13. doi: 10.1021/js980090u. PubMed PMID: 9811478.
  93. Sussman MA, Hamm-Alvarez SF, Vilalta PM, Welch S, Kedes L. Involvement of phosphorylation in doxorubicin-mediated myofibril degeneration. An immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. Circulation research. 1997;80(1):52-61. Epub 1997/01/01. PubMed PMID: 8978322.
  94. Runnegar M, Wei X, Berndt N, Hamm-Alvarez SF. Transferrin receptor recycling in rat hepatocytes is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A, possibly through effects on microtubule-dependent transport. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md). 1997;26(1):176-85. Epub 1997/07/01. doi: 10.1002/hep.510260123. PubMed PMID: 9214467.
  95. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Da Costa S, Yang T, Wei X, Gierow JP, Mircheff AK. Cholinergic stimulation of lacrimal acinar cells promotes redistribution of membrane-associated kinesin and the secretory protein, beta-hexosaminidase, and increases kinesin motor activity. Experimental eye research. 1997;64(2):141-56. Epub 1997/02/01. PubMed PMID: 9176047.
  96. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Wei X, Berndt N, Runnegar M. Protein phosphatases independently regulate vesicle movement and microtubule subpopulations in hepatocytes. The American journal of physiology. 1996;271(3 Pt 1):C929-43. Epub 1996/09/01. PubMed PMID: 8843724.
  97. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Sonee M, Loran-Goss K, Shen WC. Paclitaxel and nocodazole differentially alter endocytosis in cultured cells. Pharmaceutical research. 1996;13(11):1647-56. Epub 1996/11/01. PubMed PMID: 8956329.
  98. Hamm-Alvarez SF. Microtubule-based motor proteins: new targets for enhancing drug delivery? Pharmaceutical research. 1996;13(4):489-96. Epub 1996/04/01. PubMed PMID: 8710737.
  99. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Alayof BE, Himmel HM, Kim PY, Crews AL, Strauss HC, et al. Coordinate depression of bradykinin receptor recycling and microtubule-dependent transport by taxol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1994;91(16):7812-6. Epub 1994/08/02. PubMed PMID: 7914372; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc44492.
  100. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Kim PY, Sheetz MP. Regulation of vesicle transport in CV-1 cells and extracts. Journal of cell science. 1993;106 ( Pt 3):955-66. Epub 1993/11/01. PubMed PMID: 7905879.
  101. Hamm-Alvarez SF, Sancar A, Rajagopalan KV. The presence and distribution of reduced folates in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase mutants. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1990;265(17):9850-6. Epub 1990/06/15. PubMed PMID: 2190985.
  102. Hamm-Alvarez S, Sancar A, Rajagopalan KV. The Folate Cofactor of Escherichia coli DNA Photolyase Acts Catalytically. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1990;265(30):18656-62.
  103. Hamm-Alvarez S, Sancar A, Rajagopalan KV. Role of enzyme-bound 5,10-methenyltetrahydropteroylpolyglutamate in catalysis by Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1989;264(16):9649-56. Epub 1989/06/05. PubMed PMID: 2656701.
  104. Johnson JL, Hamm-Alvarez S, Payne G, Sancar GB, Rajagopalan KV, Sancar A. Identification of the second chromophore of Escherichia coli and yeast DNA photolyases as 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1988;85(7):2046-50. Epub 1988/04/01. PubMed PMID: 2895469; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc279925.